Biological Molecules

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Biological Molecules by Mind Map: Biological Molecules

1. Aspects

1.1. Carbon skeleton and some nitrogen

1.2. Contained by organisms

2. Principle Molecules

2.1. Carbohydrate

2.1.1. Composition Carbon: hydrogen: oxygen 1:2:1 Carbon rings

2.1.2. Classification One sugar is a monosaccride Two bond sugars is a disaccride Two or more sugars is a polysaccride

2.1.3. Aspects Energy source Soluble in water

2.1.4. Important Sugars Monosaccrides Glucose Fructose Galactose Ribose Deoxyribose Polysaccrides Sucrose Lactose Maltose Starch Glycogen Cellulose

2.2. Lipid

2.2.1. Composition Nonpolar end composed of hydrogen and carbon Polar "head"

2.2.2. Classification Oils Only carbon, hydrogen, carbon Triglycerides Chemical energy Unsaturated Fats Only carbon, hydrogen, carbon Triglycerides Chemical energy Saturated Waxes Only carbon, hydrogen, carbon Not a food source Highly saturated Creates waterproof barriers

2.2.3. Aspects Contain the water soluble head and nonpolar tail

2.2.4. Important Lipids Phospholipids Only two tails Creates semi-permeable membranes in cells Steroids Four carbon rings Important in endocrine system

2.3. Protein

2.3.1. Composition Chains of amino acids (polypeptides) Carbon surrounded by four different functional groups Use dehydration synthesis to connect amino acids Disulfide bridges link polypeptide chains Causes protein to bend or fold Central Dogma Primary structure Secondary Structure Teritary Structure Quarternary Structures

2.3.2. Aspects Used structurally Used functionally (ex. antibodies) Used for development

2.3.3. Important Proteins Enzymes Guide chemical reactions

2.3.4. Denaturing When a protein cannot perform its function it is denatured

2.4. Nucleic Acid

2.4.1. Composition Phosphate group + sugar + base Sugar is either ribose or deoxyribose

2.4.2. Classficiation Sub-units are nucleotides

2.4.3. Aspects Bound together by phosphate to sugar to other sub-units

2.4.4. Nucleic Acids DNA Contain genetic information RNA Takes place in DNA transcription and translation Cyclic nucleotides intracellular communicator molecule to molecule within cell Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Energy carriers Produced during photosynthesis and cellular respiration Coenzymes Nucleotide combined with vitamin

3. Complex Molecule Construction

3.1. Monomers

3.1.1. Single Unit

3.1.2. Connected to make polymers

3.2. Monomer Connecting/Disconnecting

3.2.1. Dehydration Synthesis Hydrogen ion removed from one monomer Hydroxl group removed from other monomer Hydroxl and hydrogen ion leave as water Creates a covalent bond

3.2.2. Hydrolysis Water is added to two monomers Splits polymer to two monomers Hydrogen ion added to one, hydroxl to other

3.3. Functional Groups

3.3.1. Groups of atoms arranged for reactivity in molecule Attached to carbon

3.3.2. Examples Hydrogen Hydroxl Carboxyl Amino Phosphate Methyl