Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Equality of Opportunity

1.1. Coleman Study: Response 2: Public V Private

1.1.1. Coleman's findings were that differences among schools do make a difference. Argues that private schools were more effective learning environments than public schools because they place more emphasis on academic activities and they enforce discipline in a way that is consistent with student achievement.

1.1.2. Pretty much Coleman was saying that private schools demand more from their students than do public schools. Also, one argument is that Private Catholic schools seem to "do it better" for low-income students.

1.1.3. I chose this response because I find it interesting and a little upsetting. It is also like comparing city schools to county schools, people think if their child is moved or attending a city school they will become better in academics and be more eligible for an academic scholarship. For starters the city schools have very few schools in their district they have to share monies with, while the county schools here have to stretch their money over more than 8 schools. It is very similar to the Private V Public response. Public schools have more students to teacher ratios and have larger ethnic & social classes to work with, therefore I believe it is much more difficult to teach in a Public school than Private. Private schools have more teachers, smaller class sizes and offer more studies then public schools can, they have more funding and less schools to share it with, it stays within their system, just like the city schools. I think Public schools are the way to go and private schools are great if you can afford them, but I don't feel the education is any better or will make you any smarter and more marketable in the end.

1.2. Women

1.2.1. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9,13, and 17; females achieve at slightly higher levels in mathematics at age 9, and lower levels at age 13 and 17; and females achieve at lower levels in science at ages 9,13,and 17

1.2.2. Females have outperformed males in reading since 1973.

1.2.3. Females are less likely to drop out of school than males, and are more likely to have a higher level of reading proficiency than males, the same is true for writing. More women are now attending post secondary institutions than men.

2. Philosophy of Education

2.1. Existentialism and Phenomenology

2.2. 1.Generic Notion, Similar to pragmatism-Phenomenologists focus on phenomena of consciousness, perception, and meaning. Existentialists believe that individuals are placed here on earth alone and must try to make same sense out of the chaos they encounter

2.3. 2. Key Researchers- Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) Martin Buber (1878-1965) Karl Jaspers (1883- 1969) Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1986) & Maxine Greene. Phenomenology -Edmund Husserl (1859-1935) Martin Herdegger ( 1889-1976) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961)

2.4. 3. Goal Of Education- Education should stress individuality and focus their needs both cognitively & affectively. Existentialism-see education as an actively liberating the individual from a chaotic, absurd world.

2.5. 4. Role of Teacher- is to help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together. Believe teachers must take risks, expose themselves to resistant students, and work constantly to enable them to become "wide awake".

2.6. 5. Method of Instruction- . Believe each child learns differently and it is up to the teacher to discover what works for each child. Use the I-thou approach, where student and teacher learn from each other in a nontraditional, nonthreatening, "friendship."

2.7. 6. Curriculum- The curriculum chosen is heavily biased toward the humanities. Literature has meaning and is able to evoke responses in readers that might move them to new levels of awareness. Also, Art, drama, and music encourage personal interaction.

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Progressive Vision

3.1.1. 1. Believe the schools should be part of the steady progress to make things better.

3.1.2. 2. View the schools as central to solving social problems

3.1.3. 3.View schools are essential to the development of individual potential, a vehicle for upward mobility, and are an integral part of a democratic society.

3.2. Neo-Liberal Perspective

3.2.1. 1. Austerity- like conservatives, the neo-liberals want to cut public spending on education, and believe efficiency can reduce costs and improve equality.

3.2.2. 2. The Market Model- Believe that the free market rather than the government is better at solving social problems.

3.2.3. 3. Individualism- Like conservatives, they believe that the individual is responsible for educational success or failure not social or economic factors.

3.2.4. 4. State Intervention- Believe that the state should intervene when schools are failing to ensure equality of opportunity.

3.2.5. 5. Economic Prosperity- They do not see poverty as an excuse for educational inequality. Believe improving education if fundamental to U.S. global economic superiority.

4. Curriculum and Pedagogy

4.1. The Developmentalist Curriculum- related to the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society.

4.1.1. Project specifications

4.1.2. End User requirements

4.1.3. Action points sign-off

4.2. 2. Senators- Richard Shelby, Jeff Sessions

4.2.1. Define actions as necessary

4.3. 3. House of Representatives- Robert Aderholt

4.4. 4. State Superintendent- Thomas R. Bice, Ed. D.

4.5. 5. Representative on State School Board- Cynthia McCarty Ph.d

4.6. 6. Local Superintendent- Dr. Craig Ross

4.7. 7. Local Representatives- Paul Bussman, Corey Harbison, Randall Shedd, Ed Henry.

4.8. 8. Pedagogic Practice- The Transformative Tradition- Purpose of education is to change the student in more meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. Transformative educators believe all teaching begins with the active participation of the student and results in some form of growth. They reject scientific model of thinking and instead view it as artistic endeavor.

4.9. 9. Critical Curriculum Theory- Stresses role of the curriculum in moving students to become aware of societal problems and active in changing the world.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. 1. The United States has 50 separate state school systems. The states retain their authority and responsibility for education.

5.2. 2. Teachers are they key players in education, but their voices are seldom heard and their knowledge is terribly underutilized, and even devalued.

5.3. 3. Teachers must be "highly qualified" by meeting 3 requirements, 1. college degree, 2. full certification or licensure. 3. demonstrate content knowledge in the subject they are teaching, or in the case of elementary teachers, in at least verbal and mathematics ability. They must pass a test known as Praxis II.

5.4. 4. Few professions are as demanding as teaching. According to Heck & Williams, teachers are expected to play many roles such as, colleague, friend, nurturer of learner, facilitator of learning, researcher, program developer, administrator, decision maker, professional leader, and community activist.

5.5. 5. The most important role of the teacher: caring, empathetic, well-rounded person that can act as a role model to students, parents, and other professionals.

5.6. 6. Goodlad suggested that their is a need for a complete redesign of teacher education programs and that a share of this redesign be constructed by policy makers, state officials, university administrators, and faculty members in the arts and sciences as well as in the schools of education. Also, he suggested that the redesign of teacher education include input fro parents, teachers in schools, and the community at large.

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. The Common School Era

6.1.1. 1. Extended primary school to all through compulsory education laws.

6.1.2. 2. Common School Era opened access to Elem education and Progressive Era to Secondary education.

6.1.3. 3. Horace Mann's belief that schools can change the social order and that education can foster social mobility are beliefs responsible for the faith and support many people give to U.S. public schools.

6.1.4. 4.Horace Mann lead the struggle for free public education. He lobbied for a state board of education and became its first secretary.

6.2. Democratic-Liberal

6.2.1. 5. Student centered learning, freedom of individualism & equity.

6.2.2. 6.Lawrence Cremin summarized this perspective as follows "That kind of organization is part of genius of American education it provides a place for everyone who wishes one, and in the end yields one of the most educated populations in the world. ( In reference to higher education)

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. Knowledge and Attitudes (1st effect of schooling on individuals

7.1.1. Ron Edwards, pioneer of the effective schoold movement. He was one of the 1st researchers to show that differences in schools are directly related to differences in student outcomes.

7.1.2. Academically oriented schools do produce higher rates of learning and it has been found that the more time students spend in school is directly related to how much they will learn. (p 120)

7.2. Functional Theories

7.2.1. 1. Functionalists view society as a kind of machine where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work. (p 117-118)

7.2.2. 2. Picture society as one that stresses the interdependence of the social system.

7.2.3. 3. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)-

7.2.4. 4. Durkheim believed that moral values were the foundation of society and he set the tone for how present day functionalists approach the study of education. (p 118)

7.3. Employment (2nd effect of schooling on individuals

7.3.1. Private and public school students may receive the same amount of education, but a private school diploma may act as a "mobility escalator." it represents a more prestigious route. (p122)

7.3.2. For the middle class, an increased education gives them upward occupational mobility, but for the poor & rich, education may have little to do with mobility.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. 1.) No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)-Centerpiece if President George W. Bush's educational policy. It is the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which included Title I, the government's flagship aid program for disadvantaged students.

8.2. ) Education Equality Project, (EEP), working to create an effective school for every child. To create effective schools, the EEP works to ensure that every school has a highly effective teacher & principal,; to create system-wide accountability; to empower parents, as well as encourage them to demand more from their schools and from themselves.

8.3. 3.) I like the intradistrict choice plan. In this type of plan, students choose a school anywhere in a district or within some zones within a district.

8.4. 4.) I like and see a strong need in School-to-Work Programs Act President Bill Clinton signed this Act in 1994. The law provided seed money to states and local partnerships of business, labor, government, education, and community organizations to develop school-to-work systems. This allowed states & their partners to bring together efforts at education reform, worker preparation, and economic development to create a system to prepare youth for the high-wage-high skill careers of today and tomorrow's economy.

8.5. 5.) Developmental Realm- Schools need to become more humane institutions where students develop as complete human beings. Schools need to emphasize, as well, values such as caring, compassion, and cooperation.

8.6. 6.) First Wave- Concerned primarily with the issue of accountability and achievement. Second Wave- targets at the structure and process of the school themselves, placing more control in the hands of the local schools, teachers, and communities.

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. 1. Abbott Vs. Burke- "New jersey Supreme Court ruled that the funding of differences between rich and poor districts were unconstitutional.

9.2. 2.Student-Centered Explanations, Genetic differences, cultural deprivation theories , and cultural differences theories.

9.3. 3. School-Centered Explanations, school financing, effective school research, between school differences, within school differences,, gender and schooling.

9.4. 4. Interactionalist Theory- suggests that one must understand how people within institutions such as families and schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success and failure.

9.5. 5. Multi-Dimensional Approach- Argues that education inequality is the product of the relationship between societal, institutional, interactional, and intra psychic variables.

9.6. 6. Effective School Literature- characteristics of unusually effective schools that help to explain why their students achieve academically. High expectations for students by teachers and administration, strong and effective leadership by a principal or school head, accountability process for students and teachers, the monitoring of student learning, high degree of instructional time on task, teachers spend great deal of time teaching and students spend great deal of time learning, flexibility for teachers to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems