My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative-- "free market and captilism economic system"

1.2. Conservative- A conservative viewpoint places most of it's importance on the individual.

1.3. As a conservative, individual people earn their place in society and in economy. In other words, it places much more importance on a singular person rather than an entire group.

1.4. Competition is large in this group. Survival of the fittest, Darwin, is something that Conservatives believe in. In other words, people must compete in order to survive-- or progress in this perspective.

1.5. Although I can't agree with all these topics, my view on education is a conservative view point for the most part. I'm willing to push my boundaries, but I do believe that focusing on the individuals in the classroom is important, rather than focusing solely on the large group. With individualized instructions, students can grow and prosper. They are better prepared to enter into society after leaving the classroom. They are better prepared for what is next-- rather that's another class, college, or the work force. There's something to be said about keeping a conservative viewpoint on education.

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. The Interactional Theory of education is closest to the theory that I hope to follow in my classroom. This particular theory focuses more on what actually happens in the classroom and the interactions that occur between the students and their teacher. What are the typical behaviors of the children in your classroom? What can you, as the teacher, learn from these behaviors and interactions?

2.2. Key researchers includes Basil Bernstein. He choses to focus on this type of perspective because he tries to correlate the level of education based on the interactions in the classroom and other forms of society.

2.3. The effect os schooling on individuals poses a very important question-- do schools matter? There are several effects on individuals. One of the most important is the effect on employment. I feel as if this is more important at this time than any other. Graduating with a college degree will give you more opportunities in employment. Important jobs call for higher levels of education, and those who receive these jobs will be more financially stable. Of course, there are some drawbacks. The book instructs that African American males that are highly educated are still less likely to get the "job" than the young white male. However, the statement rings true. Education is clearly important.

2.4. Another important effect of schooling on individuals is the effect on knowledge. That's what we go to school for, correct? To lean and grow our knowledge. However, the book instructs that there's an achievement gap between students of higher classes and lower classes. Some of that has to do with attitudes and, of course, lack of resources. A good attitude can really make a difference in the education setting. Also, education levels effect your level of knowledge on worldly things and even your self esteem.

2.5. Article about how education affects the economy. http://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/09/education-training-advantages.asp

2.6. Effects of a college education: http://classroom.synonym.com/positive-effects-college-degrees-4134.html

3. Schools as Organizations

3.1. The teaching field is a highly demanding profession. One of the main reasons that it's so demanding is that a teacher has to takes on so many roles. Switching roles is important in the classroom. As teachers, we need to know what role we need to play in any given moment. Also, there's a lot of planning that is needed to be an effective teacher and to manage a classroom. Classroom strategies are adapted by teachers, and they must decide what works the best for them. One of the most important parts of teaching, or the nature of teaching, is having control of your classroom. How can you do that? How can you control a classroom and still make sure that learning is happening within your room? It's also difficult because it's repititve and creativity is needed. A teacher also needs to be willing to adapt and to change along with technology.

3.2. Professionalism is also extremely important for a teacher. This begins in the teacher's teacher education program. To be professional, we have to learn how to teach and learn how to be an effective instructor. According to Goodlad, future teachers need to be more prepared to enter the classroom and the school. The text indicates that there's a clear tie in with professionalism and preparation. In other words, if we're more prepared to enter our own classroom-- we're more likely to become professional, successful classroom teachers.

3.3. Key researchers in the importance of professionalism include Linda M. McNeil, Don Lortie, and John Goodlad.

3.4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lI_d7d4MVw Professionalism explanation video

3.5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFpqMVP0NjM Teacher Professionalism

3.6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtreiTwJynE Importance of Teacher Professionalism

4. History of US Education

4.1. It's hard not to think that the emergence of public school for everyone wasn't the most important moment in education history. Before this was made a law, only certain people received an education. High school was on a volunteer basis, and less people were in attendance. Children dropped out to work in the fields or to help support their family.

4.1.1. Project specifications

4.1.2. End User requirements

4.1.3. Action points sign-off

4.2. An important court case took place in Kalamazoo, Michigan in 1874. This case allotted taxes to allow public schooling.

4.2.1. Define actions as necessary

4.3. "The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education" was signed by the NEA in 1918. These changed the curriculum from an academic based to a more utilitarian for schooling. In the book, the goals are listed: health, command of fundamental process, worthy home-membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, ethical character (73).

4.3.1. These principles were very useful for those that had no plans to further their education past high school.

4.4. Another curriculum reform appeared after the second World War. It was the final reform, and based ideas of daily processes of reading. This was deemed as a logical reform.

4.5. Key researchers include: The Committee of Ten, Charles Prosser,Charles Elliot, etc.

5. Philosophy of Education -- Pragmatism

5.1. Generic Notions: Instrumentalism and Experimentalism is important in Pragmatism. Focusing on a pragmatic philosophy of education ensures that students are ready and able to work and survive in the democratic society. In other words, this type of philosophy teaches them how to work together. Pragmatic education can also be referred to as progressive education, which indicates progress and letting children make their own choices in the classroom.

5.2. Key Researchers include George Sanders Pierce, William James, and John Dewey.

5.3. Goal of Education: When following a pragmatic form of education, the goal seems to be to prepare students for later in life, or life outside of your classroom in the democratic society. Students should be able to be integrated into society, and be ready and willing to adjust to being a functioning member of society. Other goals include teaching students to work as a team and solve problems either collectively or individually. School should be "a lever of social reform." (189).

5.4. Method of Instruction: Both individualized and group instruction is crucial with a pragmatic philosophy of education. Also, students should learn to ask question and figure out the answers. This philosophy of education seems to give students a bit more freedom in the classroom and erases the "old school" way of teaching. In short, this mindset on teaching gives students ways to learn and progress past memorization and tests.

5.5. Role of the teacher: The teacher acts as the facilitator, the implementor, and the encourager. In this frame of mind, the teacher doesn't profess to know everything and is willing to question and learn alongside his or her students. This teacher asks and poses questions and gives students the materials needed to answer these questions and solve problems.

5.6. Curriculum: The Curriculum is focused on contemporary topics and thoughts. The text indicates that these people take the path from the known to the unknown, hoping to make students question the world around them. Remember that pragmatic philosophy focuses on the individual, so this has to be brought into the picture when dealing with the curriculum.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. The state of Alabama education website educates us on the superintendent and other stake holders in our state's education. http://www.alsde.edu/sites/boe/Pages/home.aspx

6.2. The pedagogic practice that I most agree with is the transformative tradition. This is the thought that being in the classroom should change the student in some way. In other words, being a member of the classroom should impact a student creativity, intellectually, spiritually, or emotionally (297). They agree with mimetic traditionalists with the belief that knowledge isn't the only thing a student should get out of their educational experience.

6.3. My approach to curriculum includes helping to create well rounded, educated individuals. As I've stated with my philosophy, I want to produce students that are ready and capable of making an impact into our world. I will follow the form of curriculum laid out in the philosophy I hope to mirror.

6.4. It's also important to note the importance of multicultural education in this chapter. Some theorists think that multicultural education threatens the role of schooling. However, I believe that it allows more people to get something out of their classroom. It's important to allow any social group to feel at home in your classroom.

6.5. Important names mentioned in this chapter include Ladson-Billings, James Banks, and Geneva Gay.

6.5.1. https://prezi.com/p0ekf0cftku0/geneva-gay/

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Offering our students an equal education is an incredibly important factor to consider when creating and running our classroom. In my classroom, I hope to be able to teach any student that comes through my doors. I am going to do this regardless of race, sexuality, sex, social class, religion, etc. Every student has the right to learn, and to learn in an environment that's free of discrimination.

7.1.1. Dependencies

7.1.2. Milestones

7.2. What is the Coleman Study? In short, this study takes a look at the organizational characteristics of the classroom and the achievement in the school. Also, James Coleman was taking into consideration the different experiences that the African American students and the white students had inside of the classroom. This study was repeated in 1982, while the first study was completed in 1966

7.2.1. One response to the first Coleman Study argued that where a student attends school has little to do with their knowledge or their growth. This was a more political response rather than dealing with the actual school. It indicated that equality was possible.

7.2.2. The second round of Coleman study saw the differences in equality in the classroom. It did exist for them, and although it was focusing on Catholic schools rather than racial inequality--- it showed that these particular schools were turning into elite schools that offered better education than other schools.

7.2.3. There was a third "round" of the Coleman Study. Basically, the data shows that the make up of a school has a much bigger effect on student's cognitive growth than race/class. Segregation is still responsible for achievement gaps, but it deals with social class and economic classes rather than race.

7.3. Key researchers include: James Coleman, Thomas Hoffer, Sally Kilgore, Jencks, Alexander,Pallas , Chubb, Moe, etc.

7.3.1. KPI's

7.4. The Coleman Study: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/06389

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory-- This theory appeared in 1960s. Basically, it states that the working class and students that come from poor, or a minority, families enter school at a disadvantage because they have less resources than the wealthy. This theory places so much on their economic status. There were several criticisms of this theory. These included the fact that students can overcome their struggles and compesnatory programs.

8.1.1. One way that researchers try to eliminate this deprivation is by programs such as Project Head Start. This is a preschool offered for students who come from lower income families. This is an extremely important factor because it gave students that couldn't afford pre school the opportunity to have the same education before entering a kindergarten classroom. This takes away the barrier that these children with less money might not have the same amount of education.

8.2. Cultural Difference Theory- This theory agrees that differences do exist. However, they blame racism, or poverty for these issues. Also, these theorists want to destroy barriers the help everyone succeed. Also, these theorists place some blame on the school rather than just the social classes.

8.3. Key researchers include: Oscar Lewis and John Ogbu.

8.4. There are two different explanations of educational inequality. These are student centered and school centered. These offer different explanations to why students aren't getting treated equally in the classroom.

8.5. Do schools reproduce inequality? There's various opinions on this, but I believe that the answer is --- it definitely can. As educators, we need to take both student centered and school centered explanations of inequality and combine them and work to make sure that inequality is not reproduced. I'm going to try and not let it be reproduced in my classroom. If I'm working at a school that has less funding than others, I'm still going to expect my students to know the same material. I'm going to push my students because expecting less of them isn't going to help them. I'm very passionate about my students having equal treatment in the classroom, so I will work very hard to make sure that they feel at home, safe, and able to learn in my room.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School based reforms appeared during the 1980s and 1990s. Basically, this showed a decline in publich schools and an increase in private schools and magnet schools. These schools were able to offer greater education and were operated independently from the public schools, which also meant away from tax dollars. Tuition is charged to attend these schools.

9.1.1. The first charter school law was legalized in Minnesota in 1991. Now, 41 states (plus DC) have adopted that law and Charter schools have popped up throughout the US.

9.2. School- Business partnerships appeared during the 1980s. This happened because schools were not producing employable workers after their graduation from high school. There's little evidence that this has really helped our schools. Although, personally, I see where it could be beneficial.

9.2.1. The most well known partnership was the Boston Compact in 1982.

9.3. School to Work Programs were started in 1990s. On May 4,1994, President Clinton signed the School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994. This act created a system that helped prepare students for careers, by using federal money to create this system. Each student should receive the following: relevant education, structured training or skills based on working and learning, and proof that a good education was offered for each carreer.

9.3.1. The three core elements of this program include learning, work based learning, and having the ability to have on the job instruction. For example, I was able to job shadow someone when I was a senior. This gave me the chance to see if I wanted to follow this career and to see what I had to do to achieve my dream.