My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. places primary emphasis on the individual

1.1.2. suggests that individuals have the capacity to earn or not earn their place in the economy

1.1.3. solutions to problems should be addressed at the individual level

1.2. Traditional

1.2.1. also known as back-to-basics

1.2.2. view schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society

1.2.3. hard work, family unity, individual initiative

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Common School Reform Movement

2.1.1. Horace Mann

2.1.1.1. abandoned his successful lawyer career to led movement for free public education

2.1.1.2. lobbied for state board of education and became first secretary when it was created in 1837. Held this office for 11 years.

2.1.2. Argued for the establishment of free publically funded elementary schools

2.2. Cardinal Principles

2.2.1. Curriculum less demanding and more utilitarian.

2.2.2. Main goals: Health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home-membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, ethical character.

2.2.3. helped resolve the difficulty of educating students who were not college bound.

2.3. State Senators

2.3.1. Jefferson Sessions

2.3.2. Richard Shelby

2.4. House of Representatives

2.4.1. Mo Brooks

2.5. State Superintendent

2.5.1. Tommy Bice

2.6. Representative on state School Board

2.6.1. Charles Elliot

2.7. Local Superintendent

2.7.1. Ed Nichols

2.8. Local School Board Members

2.8.1. Karen Duke

2.8.2. Joe Propst

2.8.3. Michele Gray King

2.8.4. Dwight Jett, Jr

2.8.5. Donnie Lane

2.8.6. Ed Nichols

2.8.7. Melanie Maples

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Functional Theory

3.1.1. Educational reform is suppose to create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity

3.1.2. Schools socialize students into the appropriate values and sort and select students according to their abilites

3.1.3. Emile Durheim

3.1.3.1. Perhaps the earliest sociologist to embrace the functionalist point of view about the relation of school and society

3.2. Effects of Schooling

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.2.1.1. The higher the social class background of a student is the higher their achievement level will be

3.2.1.2. Education is related to ones sense of well-being and self-esteem

3.2.2. Employment

3.2.2.1. Graduating form college leads to greater employment opportunities

3.2.2.2. Most research shows that the amount of education is only weakly related to job performance

3.2.3. Teacher Behavior

3.2.3.1. Teachers have a huge impact on student learning and behavior

3.2.3.2. Teachers are extremely busy and many occupational hats

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Progressivism or Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic Notations

4.1.1.1. Attainment of a better society through education

4.1.2. Key Researchers

4.1.2.1. George Sanders Pierce , William James, and John Dewey

4.1.2.1.1. Founders of this school of thought

4.1.2.2. Francis Bacon

4.1.2.2.1. English philosopher scientist; pragmatism roots traced to

4.1.2.3. John Locke

4.1.2.3.1. Followed pragmatic tradition; interested in ways people come to know things

4.1.3. Goal of Education

4.1.3.1. Central to all subsequent educational theory

4.1.4. Role of Teacher

4.1.4.1. Facilitator

4.1.4.2. Teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study

4.1.5. Method of Instruction

4.1.5.1. Problem solving and inquiry method

4.1.6. Cirriculum

4.1.6.1. Core Cirriculum or Integrated Cirriculum

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Nature of teaching

5.1.1. Teachers must be skilled in may areas of technical expertise and human relations.

5.1.2. Teachers play many roles in their professional lives.

5.1.2.1. Roles include: colleague, friend, nurturer, facilitator, researcher, program developer, administrator, decision maker, professional leader, and community activist.

5.1.2.2. Role switching is very demanding and may lead to the "burnout" of the teacher.

5.2. Professionalization

5.2.1. Teachers are expected to be autonomous, thoughtful experts in education

5.2.2. John Goodlad wants to raise the level of academic preparation for teachers, create a more cohesive curriculum, and professionalize teacher education by enlarging its clinical component

5.2.3. for teachers to be professional they must be able to share in the important decisions within the schools.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1. Student Centered- relates curriculum to needs and interests of child.

6.2. Mimetic and Transformative Traditions

7. Equality of Oppurtunity

7.1. Response to Coleman Study

7.1.1. Argued that private schools are more effective than public schools

7.1.1.1. more emphasis on academic activities

7.1.1.2. private schools enforce discipline so that it is consistent with student achievement

7.1.1.3. Private schools demand more from their students than public schools.

7.1.2. the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a bigger effect on student achievement than the individuals race and class

7.1.3. where someone goes to school does not have very much effect on their cognitive growth and educational mobility

7.2. Special Needs

7.2.1. Late 1960's

7.2.1.1. Parents of children with special needs stated putting pressure on the educational system to serve their children more appropriately and effectively.

7.2.2. 1975

7.2.2.1. The Education of All Handicapped Children Law was passed

7.2.2.1.1. Six basic principles

7.2.3. 1980's

7.2.3.1. Regular education initiative (REI) was pushed for by critics of special education

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. School Centered Explanations

8.1.1. School Financing

8.1.1.1. Jonathan Kozol compared public schools in affluent suburbs to public schools in poor inner city schools.

8.1.1.1.1. After documenting the vast differences he called for equalization in school financing

8.1.1.2. Serrano v. Priest

8.1.1.2.1. In 1971 the California Supreme Court ruled that the system of unequal school financing between wealthy and poor districts was unconstitutional.

8.1.2. Effective School Research

8.1.2.1. Suggests that there are school-centered process that help explain unequal educational achievement by different groups of students.

8.1.2.2. Supports the latter work of Coleman and his colleagues.

8.1.2.2.1. Argues that Catholic schools produce better academic achievement because of higher expectations and more rigorous curriculum.

8.2. Argument Against Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.2.1. Critics say it removes the responsibility of school success and failure from schools and teachers and instead placing the blame on families.

8.2.2. Blames victims poverty for the effects of poverty instead of the social and economical processes that causes poverty.

8.2.3. Compensatory programs have not improved significantly improved the academic performance of disadvantaged children.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Improvement

9.1.1. 1986

9.1.1.1. The Carnegie Report focused on the necessity of educational quality for a competitive U.S. economy and the value of education in a democratic political system.

9.1.2. 1986

9.1.2.1. The Holmes report outlined a set of five goals and proposals for the improvement of teacher education.

9.1.2.1.1. Raising the intellectual soundness of teacher education

9.1.2.1.2. creating career ladders for teachers

9.1.2.1.3. developing entry-level requirements into the profession

9.1.2.1.4. linking schools of education at the university level to schools

9.1.2.1.5. improving schools for students and teachers

9.1.3. 1990

9.1.3.1. John Goodlad

9.1.3.1.1. stressed the importance of rewarding teacher-educators instead regulating them to the bottom of the university status hierarchy

9.1.4. 1996

9.1.4.1. Linda Darling-Hammond

9.1.4.1.1. School reform cannot succeed unless it focuses on creating the conditions in which teachers can teach and teach well