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(Grp05)_Nature and Man by Mind Map: (Grp05)_Nature and Man
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(Grp05)_Nature and Man

Time and Space (Longitude)


Prominent figures in history, including Vespucci, Galileo, Halley, and Mayer attempted to figure out how to determine longitude at sea.

The problem of accurately computing longitude was solved by a British clockmaker, whose name was John Harrison.


Longitude is distance measured in degrees east or west from an imaginary line called the prime meridian. The prime meridian extends from the North Pole to the South Pole and passes through Greenwich, England.

Radar and the Global Positioning System (GPS) are utilized to calculate longitude in modern day.

He created the marine chronometer.


Harrison created the chronometer in 1737.


The chronometer was created in Britain.


Being able to determine longitude was essential for mariners and explorers., Cartography, Cartography is the study and practice of making maps., Ocean Navigation (navigating through water), Longitude helped ships determine their general location at sea.

Longitude lines were utilized to create a time system (or time zones) for different places on Earth., This helped people who traveled to different places., They knew when they would be arriving at a certain destination., They could plan out their visit to a place., Time Zones, A range of longitudes where a common standard time is used.


Marine Chronometer, It wasn't affected by variations in temperature, humidity, or pressure., It remained accurate over long time intervals., It was able to function on a ship that was constantly moving., It resisted corrosion in salt air., It was a portable time standard., It determined longitude by celestial navigation.

Alchemy=>Transmutation=> Gold

Alchemy was developed in Egypt and China...

It was brought into Europe from Egypt by Muslims during the eighth century.

Alchemy was then a popular practice until Robert Boyle proved it was impossible in the 17th century.

Artists used knowledge gained from alchemy to make pigments of various exotic shades and colors.

Alchemists were ahead of their time in their use of different types of reasoning...

This is largely due to the enormous amount of self gain that would be gained by it (transforming any element into gold).

They were the first to use the scientific method.

While never reaching their final destination of transforming other materials...

(primarily lead) into gold, or creating the elixir of life, alchemists did make many other scientific discoveries along the way.

Alchemists contributed to the technologies of assaying metals,...

Techniques developed by alchemists were also adopted by doctors,...

Although alchemy was purseud by very many people, some famous alchemists include Cornelius Agrippa, John Dee, and Paracelsus.

The Problem of Dome


Filippo Brunelleschi, Architect and engineer who created the dome of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (the Duomo) in Florence, Brunelleschi wanted to build the dome like the Romans did, but he was missing wood and concrete


Dome- A rounded structure forming the roof of a structure with a circular base


Florence, Italy, Il Duomo di Firenze


In 1418, Florentine fathers hosted a contest for the best dome design, offering gold and fame as reward


The pressure of the bricks would cause them to collapse towards the center.

In 1418, the town fathers realized the big problem with their cathedral: the giant hole in the roof, Rain and snow got in the cathedral


Brunelleschi used two shells for the dome. The inner dome would be made of lighter materials, and the outer dome is made of heavier materials., This design makes the dome lighter, He used "tension rings" and "rib supports". The rings would hug the shells, and the supports would run through them., He starts building with stone, then he uses lighter materials, Brunelleschi used a herringbone pattern, which redirects the weight to the supports, rather than to the floor., Workers can lie on the inner shell to build the outer shell.

Byzantine architects used pendentives, curved triangles, in order to rest on piers, Pendentive, Their sides formed the arches, and the bases formed the circle on the top

Linear Perspective and Vision

Linear Perspective and Vision

It is an optical illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. There is a vanishing point in which all the orthogonals appear to meet. The orthogonals are visual rays that help connect points to the vanishing point. The horizontal line is where the sky meets the ground.

Brunelleschi was the one who invented it.

It was rediscovered because artists in Florence didn't know how to create depth in their paintings and they wanted to develop a system of perspective. It allows the art to look 3D.

Linear Perspective

Pu04b_European Renaissance Crossword Puzzle

East-West and North-South

"Proportion" and the Fibonacci Square


comparison/ratio of at least two variablesNo one is sure who discovered the concept of proportions.

Golden Ratio, Pythagoras, Found concept of harmony, wanted to find mathematical foundation of art so that it proves his belief that everything consists of numbers, discovered golden ratio by studying the sounds to create notes that are separated by an octave, changing the strings to produce these notes that also produce ratios that were reoccurring, the Golden Ratio, Specific Aspects of Golden Ratio, Body, Vitruvian Man, At the time when Da Vinci created the Vitruvian Man (Renaissance) , Europe was fascinated by beauty/harmony and perfection., Da Vinci was supported by the Medici, powerful banking family, Architecture, Parthenon

Fibonacci Sequence

Fibonacci Sequence is an order of numbers where the preceding numbers add up to the next number, Making a proportion of two consecutive numbers will get the Golden Ratio/Divine Proportion

discovered by Leonardo Fibonacci in the 12th Century in Europe but known by Indian mathematicians by the 6th C., The sequence was written among other things in Fibonacci's book, Liber Abaci., wanted to display how easy it is to use the arabic number system compared to the Roman numerals., this book is to help the merchants convert currency and weight as they go through the towns., discovered fibonacci sequence while doing a problem about the growth of rabbit population

Golden Ratio-->In your Face!


Target Face

FilmQ04b_The Renaissance

The Medici Family helped Florence gain power!

Niccolo Machiavelli was the political adviser of the Medici Family

Men are ungrateful liars who are greedy for profits

Men will become yours if you manipulate them with money

A work of art needed harmony, correct proportions, and exact colors

Bankers charged 45% interest, making them powerful as warlords