Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us

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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us by Mind Map: Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us

1. amazon

1.1. Kindle

1.2. Publication Date: April 5, 2011

1.3. Amazon description: Forget everything you thought you knew about how to motivate people—at work, at school, at home. It's wrong. As Daniel H. Pink (author of To Sell Is Human: The Surprising Truth About Motivating Others) explains in his paradigm-shattering book Drive, the secret to high performance and satisfaction in today's world is the deeply human need to direct our own lives, to learn and create new things, and to do better by ourselves and our world. Drawing on four decades of scientific research on human motivation, Pink exposes the mismatch between what science knows and what business does—and how that affects every aspect of our lives. He demonstrates that while the old-fashioned carrot-and-stick approach worked successfully in the 20th century, it's precisely the wrong way to motivate people for today's challenges. In Drive, he reveals the three elements of true motivation: *Autonomy—the desire to direct our own lives *Mastery—the urge to get better and better at something that matters *Purpose—the yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves Along the way, he takes us to companies that are enlisting new approaches to motivation and introduces us to the scientists and entrepreneurs who are pointing a bold way forward. Drive is bursting with big ideas—the rare book that will change how you think and transform how you live.

2. Video

3. Introduction: The Puzzling Puzzles Harry Harlow Edward Deci

3.1. We kick off with the stories and experiments of Harry Harlow and Edward Deci. Harlow’s experiment (lab monkeys solving a puzzle) produced a theory–what amounted to a third drive: “The performance of the task,” he said, “provided intrinsic reward. … The joy of the task was its own reward.”

3.2. The monkeys solved the puzzles simply because they found it gratifying to solve puzzles. They enjoyed it. The joy of the task was its own reward.

3.3. “When money is used as an external reward for some activity, the subjects lose intrinsic interest for the activity,” he* wrote. Rewards can deliver a short-term boost—just as a jolt of caffeine can keep you cranking for a few more hours. But the effect wears off—and, worse, can reduce a person’s longer-term motivation to continue the project. ========== *Edward Deci

3.4. “This is a book about motivation. I will show that much of what we believe about the subject just isn’t so–and that the insights that Harlow and Deci began uncovering a few decades ago come much closer to the truth.

4. Part 1 A New Operating System

4.1. Chapter 1 The Rise and Fall of Motivation 2.0

4.1.1. How we organize what we do Wikipedia represents the most powerful new business model of the twenty-first century: open source. ==========

4.1.2. How we think about what we do Economics, she explained, wasn’t the study of money. It was the study of behavior. ========== Daniel Kahneman, an American psychologist who won the Nobel Prize in economics that year for work he’d done with Israeli Amos Tversky, helped force a change in how we think about what we do. ========== In short, we are irrational—and predictably so, says Dan Ariely (author of Predictably Irrational) ==========

4.1.3. How we do what we do An algorithmic task is one in which you follow a set of established instructions down a single pathway to one conclusion. That is, there’s an algorithm for solving it. A heuristic task is the opposite. Precisely because no algorithm exists for it, you have to experiment with possibilities and devise a novel solution. ========== Researchers such as Harvard Business School’s Teresa Amabile have found that external rewards and punishments—both carrots and sticks—can work nicely for algorithmic tasks. But they can be devastating for heuristic ones. ========== One business leader, who didn’t want to be identified, said it plainly. When he conducts job interviews, he tells prospective employees: “If you need me to motivate you, I probably don’t want to hire you.” ==========

4.2. Chapter 2 Seven Reasons Carrots and Sticks (Often) Don’t Work…

4.2.1. The best use of money as a motivator is to pay people enough to take the issue of money off the table. ==========

4.2.2. Less of what we want Twain extracts a key motivational principle, namely “that Work consists of whatever a body is OBLIGED to do, and that Play consists of whatever a body is not obliged to do.” ==========

4.2.3. Intrinsic Motivation Only contingent rewards—if you do this, then you’ll get that—had the negative effect. Why? “If-then” rewards require people to forfeit some of their autonomy. ========== Try to encourage a kid to learn math by paying her for each workbook page she completes – and she’ll almost certainly become more diligent in the short term and lose interest in math in the long term. “People use rewards expecting to gain the benefit of increasing another person’s motivation and behavior, but in so doing, they often incur the unintentional and hidden cost of undermining that person’s intrinsic motivation toward the activity” –>from a “behavioral science textbook” This is one of the most robust findings in social science—and also one of the most ignored. -Dan Pink

4.2.4. High Performance a group of scientists (among them Dan Ariely) testing people in India. They tried to motivate people with low, medium and very high amounts of money… “In 8 og 9 tasks examined across the three experiments, higher incentives led to worse peformance”

4.2.5. Creativity Challenge: Fix the candle to the wall so that the wax doesn’t drip on the table. Rewards, by their very nature, narrow our focus. That’s helpful when there’s a clear path to a solution. They help us stare ahead and race faster. But “if-then” motivators are terrible for challenges like the candle problem. As this experiment shows, the rewards narrowed people’s focus and blinkered the wide view that might have allowed them to see new uses for old objects.

4.2.6. MORE OF WHAT WE DON’T WANT Unethical behavior The problem with making an extrinsic reward the only destination that matters is that some people will choose the quickest route there, even if it means taking the low road. Short-term thinking Several researchers have found that companies that spend the most time offering guidance on quarterly earnings deliver significantly lower long-term growth rates than companies that offer guidance less frequently. (One reason: The earnings-obsessed companies typically invest less in research & development) ========== So if students get a prize for reading three books, many won’t pick up a fourth, let alone embark on a lifetime of reading—just as executives who hit their quarterly numbers often won’t boost earnings a penny more, let alone contemplate the long-term health of their company. ==========

4.2.7. CARROTS AND STICKS: The Seven Deadly Flaws They can extinguish intrinsic motivation They can diminish performance They can crush creativity They can crowd out good behavior They can encourage cheating, shortcuts, and unethical behavior They can become addictive They can foster short-term thinking

4.3. Chapter 2A …and the Special Circumstances When They Do

4.3.1. The starting point, of course, is to ensure that the baseline rewards—wages, salaries, benefits, and so on—are adequate and fair. Without a healthy baseline, motivation of any sort is difficult and often impossible. ==========

4.3.2. For routine tasks, which aren’t very interesting and don’t demand much creative thinking, rewards can provide a small motivational booster shot without the harmful side effects. ==========

4.3.3. How to motivate people to do routine tasks: Offer a rationale for why the task is necessary (..can become more meaningful & engaing… ) Acknowledge that the task is boring (..act of empathy…) Allow people to complete the task their own way (think autonomy, not control)

4.3.4. In other words, where “if-then” rewards are a mistake, shift to “now that” rewards—as in “Now that you’ve finished the poster and it turned out so well, I’d like to celebrate by taking you out to lunch.” ==========

4.3.5. When to use rewards: A simple Flowchart

4.4. Chapter 3 Type I and Type X

4.4.1. Richard Ryan & Edward Deci “Deci and Ryan, in my view, are the sun around which all this other research orbits,” Pink says. “They’re true pioneers. Forty years from now, we’ll look back on them as two of the most important social scientists of our time.” (quote is not from the book) The combination has been powerful enough to make them among the most influential behavioral scientists of their generation. Together Deci and Ryan have fashioned what they call “self-determination theory (SDT).” SDT: “Self-Determination Theory.” Many theories of behavior pivot around a particular human tendency……. SDT, by contrast, begins with a notion of universal human needs. It argues that we have three innate psychological needs–competence, autonomy, and relatedness. When those needs are satisfied, we’re motivated, productive, and happy. When they’re thwarted, our motivation, productivity, and happiness plummit.”

4.4.2. The power of the alphabet …and later in a groundbreaking book called The Human Side of Enterprise in 1960, (Douglas) McGregor argued that those running companies were operating from faulty assumptions about human behavior. ========== Check out –> Theory X and Theory Y

4.4.3. Type I and Type X (introduced by Dan Pink) Type X behavior is fueled more by extrinsic desires than intrinsic ones. It concerns itself less with the inherent satisfaction of an activity and more with the external rewards to which that activity leads. ========== Type I behavior is fueled more by intrinsic desires than extrinsic ones. It concerns itself less with the external rewards to which an activity leads and more with the inherent satisfaction of the activity itself. ========== For Type I’s, the main motivator is the freedom, challenge, and purpose of the undertaking itself; any other gains are welcome, but mainly as a bonus. ========== Type I’s almost always outperform Type X’s in the long run. Type I behavior is both born & made. Type I behavior does not disdain money or recognition. (“One reason fair and adequate pay is so essential is that it takes the issue of money off the table so they can focus on the work itself. By contrast, for many Type X’s, money is the table.. It’s why they do what they do. Recognition is similar.”) Type I behavior is a renewable resource. Type I behavior promotes greater physical and mental well-being. Ultimately, Type I behavior depends on three nutrients: autonomy, mastery, and purpose. Type I behavior is self-directed. It is devoted to becoming better and better at something that matters. And it connects that quest for excellence to a larger purpose. I use these two letters for the “x” in extrinsic and the “i” in intrinsic as well as to pay homage to Douglas McGregor.

5. Part 2 The Three Elements

5.1. Chapter 4 Autonomy

5.1.1. ROWE: Results-only Work Environment. “More companies will migrate to this (ROWE) as more business owners my age come up. My dad’s generation views human beings as human resources. They’re the two-by-fours you need to build your house,” he says. “For me, it’s a partnership between me and the employees. They’re not resources. They’re partners.” – Jeff Gunther

5.1.2. Players & Pawns If, at age fourteen or forty-three, we’re passive and inert, that’s not because it’s our nature. It’s because something flipped our default setting. ========== It requires resisting the temptation to control people—and instead doing everything we can to reawaken their deep-seated sense of autonomy. ========== Perhaps it’s time to toss the very word ‘management’ into the linguistic ash heap alongside ‘icebox’ and ‘horseless carriage.’ This era doesn’t call for better management. It calls for a renaissance of self-direction. In short, management isn’t the solution; it’s the problem.

5.1.3. The Four Essentials Type I behavior emerges when people have autonomy over the four T’s: their task, their time, their technique, and their team. ========== TASK “Hire good people, and leave them alone.” – William McKnight Autonomy over task is one of the essential aspects of the Motivation 3.0 approach to work. ========== TIME The billable hour is a relic of Motivation 2.0. It makes some sense for routine tasks—whether fitting doors onto the body of a Ford Taurus… ========== Now, albeit slowly, the ROWE approach is spreading. The corporate headquarters of another American retailer, Gap Outlet, has gone ROWE. ========== Technique Team At Facebook, newly hired engineers spend six weeks in company boot camp—fixing software bugs, learning the culture, and meeting new colleagues. Then after they’ve interviewed with the company’s various engineering teams, they decide which one to join. In other words, Facebook selects the talent. But the talent selects her team.

5.1.4. The ART of AUTONOMY Whether you’re fixing sinks, ringing up groceries, selling cars, or writing a lesson plan, you and I need autonomy just as deeply as a great painter. ==========

5.2. Chapter 5 Mastery

5.2.1. You need not see what someone is doing to know if it is his vocation. You have only to watch his eyes; a cook mixing a sauce, a surgeon making a primary incision, a clerk completing a bill of lading, wear the same rapt expression, forgetting themselves in a function. How beautiful it is, that eye-on-the-object look. —W.H Auden

5.2.2. Control leads to compliance; autonomy leads to engagement. And this distinction leads to the second element of Type I behavior: mastery—the desire to get better and better at something that matters. ==========

5.2.3. Gallup’s extensive research on the subject shows that in the United States, more than 50 percent of employees are not engaged at work—and nearly 20 percent are actively disengaged. The Cost of all this disengagement: about $300 billion a year in lost productivity ========== According to the consulting firm McKinsey & Co., in some countries as little as 2 to 3 percent of the workforce is highly engaged in their work. ==========

5.2.4. FLOW He (Csikszentmihalyi) began by writing about creativity. Creativity took him into the study of play. And his exploration of play unlocked an insight about the human experience that would make him famous. In the midst of play, many people enjoyed what Csikszentmihalyi called “autotelic experiences”—from the Greek auto (self) and telos (goal or purpose). In an autotelic experience, the goal is self-fulfilling; the activity is its own reward. Painters he observed during his Ph.D. research, Csikszentmihalyi said, were so enthralled in what they were doing that they seemed to be in a trance. For them, time passed quickly and self-consciousness dissolved. ========== Perhaps equally significant, he replaced that wonky Greek-derived adjective with a word he found people using to describe these optimal moments: flow. The highest, most satisfying experiences in people’s lives were when they were in FLOW. ==========

5.2.5. Goldilocks on a cargo ship As Fast Company magazine has noted, a number of companies, including Microsoft, Patagonia, and Toyota, have realized that creating flow-friendly environments that help people move toward mastery can increase productivity and satisfaction at work. ========== And then there’s Jenova Chen, a young game designer who, in 2006, wrote his MFA thesis on Csikszentmihalyi’s theory. Chen believed that video games held the promise to deliver quintessential flow experiences, but that too many games required an almost obsessive level of commitment. Why not, he thought, design a game to bring the flow sensation to more casual gamers? ==========

5.2.6. The Three Laws of Mastery Mastery Is a Mindset Carol Dweck’s signature insight is that what people believe shapes what people achieve. “Figure out for yourself what you want to be really good at, know that you’ll never really satisfy yourself that you’ve made it, and accept that thats okay.” ~ Robert B. Reich (Former U.S. Secretary of Labor) Type X behavior often holds an entity theory of intelligence, prefers performance goals to learning goals, and disdains effort as a sign of weakness. Type I behavior has an incremental theory of intelligence, prizes learning goals over performance goals, and welcomes effort as a way to improve at something that matters. Begin with one mindset, and mastery is impossible. Begin with the other, and it can be inevitable. Mastery Is Pain As wonderful as flow is, the path to mastery—becoming ever better at something you care about—is not lined with daisies and spanned by a rainbow. If it were, more of us would make the trip. Mastery hurts. Sometimes—many times—it’s not much fun. ========== Mastery—of sports, music, business—requires effort (difficult, painful, excruciating, all-consuming effort) over a long time (not a week or a month, but a decade). – Anders Ericsson ========== “Being a professional,” Julius Erving once said, “is doing the things you love to do, on the days you don’t feel like doing them.” ========== Check out this book: Mastery is an Asymptote You can approach it. You can home in on it. You can get really, really, really close to it. But like Cézanne, you can never touch it. Mastery is impossible to realize fully. ==========

5.2.7. THE OXYGEN OF THE SOUL The experiment suggests that flow, the deep sense of engagement that Motivation 3.0 calls for, isn’t a nicety. It’s a necessity. We need it to survive. It is the oxygen of the soul. ========== And one of Csikszentmihalyi’s more surprising findings is that people are much more likely to reach that flow state at work than in leisure. ========== Over lunch, Csikszentmihalyi and I talked about children. A little kid’s life bursts with autotelic experiences. Children careen from one flow moment to another, animated by a sense of joy, equipped with a mindset of possibility, and working with the dedication of a West Point cadet. They use their brains and their bodies to probe and draw feedback from the environment in an endless pursuit of mastery. Then -at some point in their lives- they don’t. What happens? You start to get ashamed that what you’re doing is childish…. what a mistake. ========== Left to their own devices, Csikszentmihalyi says, children seek out flow with the inevitability of a natural law. So should we all. ==========

5.3. Chapter 6 Purpose

5.3.1. The pattern is the same in many other prosperous countries… if you’ve reached the age of sixty, you’re more than likely to live into your eighties.

5.3.2. The Purpose Motive autonomy & mastery are essentials, but for proper balance we need purpose The most deeply motivated people–not to mention those who are most productive and satisfied–hitch their desires to a cause larger than themselves. “Purpose provides activation energy for living,” psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi told me in an interview. “I think that evolution has had a hand in selecting people who had a sense of doing something beyond themselves.” ==========

5.3.3. Goals The aims of these Motivation 3.0 companies are not to chase profit while trying to stay ethical and law-abiding. Their goal is to pursue purpose – and to use profit as the catalyst rather than the objective.

5.3.4. Words People at work are thirsting for context, yearning to know that what they do contributes to a larger whole. And a powerful way to provide that context is to spend a little less time telling how and a little more time showing why

5.3.5. Policies According to The Boston Globe: Companies can improve their employees’ emotional well-being by shifting some of their budget for charitable giving so that individual employees are given sums to donate, leaving them happier even as the charities of their choice benefit

5.3.6. THE GOOD LIFE “These findings are rather striking,” the researchers write, “as they suggest that attainment of a particular set of goals [in this case, profit goals] has no impact on well-being and actually contributes to ill-being.” ========== “People who are very high in extrinsic goals for wealth are more likely to attain that wealth, but they’re still unhappy,” Ryan told me. ========== profit counts… but it’s not the only thing. Indeed, if we were to look at history’s greatest achievements – from the printing press to constitutional democracy to cures for deadly diseases – the spark that kept the creators working deep into the night was purpose at least as much as profit We know that human beings are not merely smaller, slower, bettersmelling donkeys trudging after that day’s carrot. We know—if we’ve spent time with young children or remember ourselves at our best—that we’re not destined to be passive and compliant. We’re designed to be active and engaged. And we know that the richest experiences in our lives aren’t when we’re clamoring for validation from others, but when we’re listening to our own voice—doing something that matters, doing it well, and doing it in the service of a cause larger than ourselves. ==========

6. Part 3 The Type I Toolkit

6.1. Type I for Individuals: Nine Strategies for Awakening Your Motivation

6.1.1. Give Yourself a “Flow Test”

6.1.2. First Ask A Big Question As you contemplate your purpose, begin with the big question: What’s your sentence? Examples: * He raised four kids who became happy and healthy adults. * She invented a device that made people’s lives easier. * He cared for every person who walked into his office regardless of whether that person could pay. * She taught two generations of children how to read.

6.1.3. Then Keep Asking A Small Question At the end of each day, ask yourself whether you were better today than you were yesterday. Did you do more? Did you do it well? Or to get specific, did you learn your ten vocabulary words, make your eight sales calls, eat your five servings of fruits and vegetables, write your four pages?

6.1.4. Take A Sagmeister The designer Stefan Sagmeister has found a brilliant way to ensure he’s living a Type I life. Think about the standard pattern in developed countries, he says. People usually spend the first twenty-five or so years of their lives learning, the next forty or so years working, and the final twenty-five in retirement. That boilerplate timeline got Sagmeister wondering: Why not snip five years from retirement and sprinkle them into your working years? So every seven years, Sagmeister closes his graphic design shop, tells his clients he won’t be back for a year, and goes off on a 365-day sabbatical. He uses the time to travel, to live places he’s never been, and to experiment with new projects. It sounds risky, I know. But he says the ideas he generates during the year off often provide his income for the next seven years

6.1.5. Give Yourself A Performance Review as Douglas McGregor and others have suggested, we should give ourselves our own performance reviews. Here’s how. Figure out your goals, mostly learning goals, but also a few performance goals and then every month, call yourself to your office and give yourself an appraisal. * How are you faring? * Where are you falling short? * What tools, information, or support might you need to do better?

6.1.6. Get Unstuck By Going Oblique If you’re working on a project and find yourself stymied, pull an Oblique card from the deck. These brain bombs are a great way to keep your mind open despite constraints you can’t control. You can buy the deck at follow one of the Twitter accounts inspired by the strategies, such as:

6.1.7. Move Five Steps Closer To Mastery Repeat, repeat, repeat. Repetition matters. Basketball greats don’t shoot ten free throws at the end of team practice; they shoot five hundred. Seek constant, critical feedback. If you don’t know how you’re doing, you won’t know what to improve. Focus ruthlessly on where you need help. While many of us work on what we’re already good at, says Ericsson, those who get better work on their weaknesses. Prepare for the process to be mentally and physically exhausting.That’s why so few people commit to it, but that’s why it works.

6.1.8. Take A Page Form Webber And A Card From Your Pocket What gets you up in the morning? Now, on the other side of the card, write your answer to another question: What keeps you up at night? Pare each response to a single sentence. And if you don’t like an answer, toss the card and try again until you’ve crafted something you can live with. Then read what you’ve produced. If both answers give you a sense of meaning and direction, Congratulations! says Webber. - Use them as your compass, checking from time to time to see if they’re still true. If you don’t like one or both of your answers, it opens up a new question: What are you going to do about it?

6.1.9. Create Your Own Motivational Poster Try any of these sites * Despair Inc * Big Huge Labs * Automotivator

6.2. Type I for Organizations: Nine Ways to Improve Your Company, Office, or Group

6.2.1. Try 20 percent time with training wheels If you’re feeling skittish, here’s an idea: Go with a more modest version 20 percent time … with training wheels. Start with, say, 10 percent time.

6.2.2. Encourage peer-to-peer now that rewards At any point, without asking permission, anyone in the company can award a $50 bonus to any of her colleagues. It works because it’s real-time, and it’s not handed down from any management, the firm’s human resources director told Fast Company.

6.2.3. Conduct an autonomy audit Ask everyone in your department or on your team to respond to these four questions with a numerical ranking (using a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 “meaning almost none” and 10 meaning “a huge amount”): How much autonomy do you have over your tasks at work - your main responsibilities and what you do in a given day? How much autonomy do you have over your time at work - for instance, when you arrive, when you leave, and how you allocate your hours each day? How much autonomy do you have over your team at work - that is, to what extent are you able to choose the people with whom you typically collaborate? How much autonomy do you have over your technique at work - how you actually perform the main responsibilities of your job?

6.2.4. Take three steps toward giving up control Type X bosses relish control. Type I bosses relinquish control. Extending people the freedom they need to do great work is usually wise, but it’s not always easy. So if you’re feeling the urge to control, here are three ways to begin letting go for your own benefit and your team’s: Involve people in goal-setting. Use non-controlling language. Hold office hours.

6.2.5. Play whose purpose is it anyway? Gather your team, your department, or, if you can, all the employees in your outfit. Hand everyone a blank three-by-five-inch card. Then ask each person to write down his or her one-sentence answer to the following question: What is our company’s (or organization’s) purpose? Collect the cards and read them aloud. What do they tell you? Are the answers similar, everyone aligned along a common purpose? Or are they all over the place - some people believing one thing, others something completely different, and still others without even a guess? This simple inquiry can offer a glimpse into the soul of your enterprise. If people don’t know why they’re doing what they’re doing, how can you expect them to be motivated to do it?

6.2.6. Use Reich’s pronoun test Former U.S. labor secretary Robert B. Reich has devised a smart, simple, (and free) diagnostic tool for measuring the health of an organization. When he talks to employees, he listens carefully for the pronouns they use. Do employees refer to their company as “they” or as “we”? “They” suggests at least some amount of disengagement, and perhaps even alienation. “We” suggests the opposite - that employees feel they’re part of something significant and meaningful.

6.2.7. Design for intrinsic motivation * Create an environment that makes people feel good about participating. * Give users autonomy. * Keep the system as open as possible.

6.2.8. Promote goldilocks for groups

6.2.9. Turn your next off-site into a fedex day Set aside an entire day where employees can work on anything they choose, however they want, with whomever they’d like. Make sure they have the tools and resources they need. And impose just one rule: People must deliver something - a new idea, a prototype of a product, a better internal process the following day.

6.3. The Zen of Compensation: Paying People the Type I Way

6.3.1. Pay people fairly internally and in comparison with other organizations. Pay more than average.

6.4. Type I for Parents and Educators: Nine Ideas for Helping Our Kids

6.4.1. APPLY THE THREE-PART TYPE I TEST FOR HOMEWORK. Refashion homework into homelearning.

6.4.2. HAVE A FedEx DAY. Kids come up with projects themselves.

6.4.3. TRY DIY REPORT CARDS. Ask students to list their top learning goals, and then ask them to “do-it-yourself” grade themselves.

6.4.4. Give your kids an allowance and some chores--but don't combine them. Kids learn how to handle money but they see chores as part of the family obligation.

6.4.5. OFFER PRAISE…THE RIGHT WAY. Praise effort and strategy, not intelligence. Make praise specific. Praise in private. Offer praise only when there is a good reason.

6.4.6. HELP KIDS SEE THE BIG PICTURE. Why am I learning this? How is it relevant to the world I live in now?

6.4.7. CHECK OUT THESE FIVE TYPE I SCHOOLS: Big Picture Learning, Sudbury Valley School, The Tinkering School, (Gever Tulley’s talk), Puget Sound Community School, Motessori Schools.

6.4.8. TAKE A CLASS FROM THE UNSCHOOLERS. They encourage mastery by allowing children to spend as long as they’d like and to go as deep as they desire on the topics that interest them. Start with Dumbing Us Down.


6.5. The Type I Reading List: Fifteen Essential Books

6.5.1. Finite and Infinite Games: A Vision of Life as Play and Possibility by James Carse.

6.5.2. Talent Is Overrated: What Really Separates World-Class Performers from Everybody Else by Geoff Colvin.

6.5.3. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi.

6.5.4. Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self-Motivation by Edward Deci with Richard Flaste.

6.5.5. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol Dweck

6.5.6. Then We Came to the End by Joshua Ferris.

6.5.7. Good Work: When Excellence and Ethics Meet by Howard Gardner, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and William Damon

6.5.8. Outliers: The Story of Success by Malcolm Gladwell.

6.5.9. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln by Doris Kearns Goodwin.

6.5.10. The Amateurs: The Story of Four Young Men and Their Quest for an Olympic Gold Medal by David Halberstam.

6.5.11. Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A’s, Praise, and Other Bribes by Alfie Kohn.

6.5.12. Once a Runner by John Parker, Jr. Originally published in 1978

6.5.13. The War of Art: Break Through the Blocks and Win Your Inner Creative Battles by Steven Pressfield

6.5.14. Maverick: The Success Story Behind the World’s Most Unusual Workplace by Ricardo Semler.

6.5.15. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization by Peter Senge

6.6. Listen to the Gurus: Six Business Thinkers Who Get It

6.6.1. DOUGLAS McGREGOR. Big Idea: Theory X vs. Theory Y. Type I Insight: “Managers frequently complain to me about the fact that subordinates ‘nowadays’ won’t take responsibility. I have been interested to note how often these same managers keep a constant surveillance over the day-to-day performance of subordinates, sometimes two or three levels below themselves.”

6.6.2. PETER DRUCKER. Big Idea: Self-management. Type I Insight: “Demanding of knowledge workers that they define their own task and its results is necessary because knowledge workers must be autonomous…workers should be asked to think through their own work plans and then to submit them. What am I going to focus on? What results can be expected for which I should be held accountable? By what deadline?

6.6.3. JIM COLLINS. Big Idea: Self-motivation and greatness. Type I Insight: Collins suggest four basic practices: 1) “Lead with questions, not answers.” 2) “Engage in dialogue and debate, not coercion.” 3) “Conduct autopsies, without blame.” 4) “Build ‘red flag’ mechanisms.” In other words, make it easy for employees and customers to speak up when they identify a problem.

6.6.4. CALI RESSLER AND JODY THOMPSON. Why Work Sucks and How to Fix It. Big Idea: The results-only work environment. Type I Insight: Among the basic tenets of ROWE: “People at all levels stop doing any activity that is a waste of their time, the customer’s time, or their company’s time.” “Employees have the freedom to work any way they want.” “Every meeting is optional.” “There are no work schedules.

6.6.5. GARY HAMEL. Big Idea: Management is an outdated technology. Type I Insight: “The next time you’re in a meeting and folks are discussing how to wring another increment of performance out of your workforce, you might ask: ‘To what end, and to whose benefit, are our employees being asked to give of themselves? Have we committed ourselves to a purpose that is truly deserving of their initiative, imagination, and passion?’

6.7. The Type I Fitness Plan: Four Tips for Getting (and Staying) Motivated to Exercise

6.7.1. Set your own goals

6.7.2. Ditch thetreadmill

6.7.3. Keep mastery in mind

6.7.4. Reward yourself the right way