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Explorations by Mind Map: Explorations

1. Chapter 1 : Why did the Europeans begin to explore the world ?

1.1. Old and New view of the world

1.1.1. Before the 1400, most Europeans knew very little about the world

1.1.2. They still believed that it wass flat

1.1.3. They believed the horizon was a straight line marking the edge of the world

1.2. Medieval Wars

1.2.1. In the Middle Ages the world was divided in Christian and Muslim countries

1.2.2. For centuries, there were wars between muslims and Christian countries. This made it very difficult for traders

1.3. Fear of Travel

1.3.1. People believed there horizon marked a line, which if you passed, you would fall over the edge of the world.

1.3.2. They were afraid to go south because they believed that the sea got hotter and hotter until it boiled.

1.3.3. They were afraid o said monsters, which were said to be able to swallow a whole ship.

1.4. Why did the Europeans begin to explore ?

1.4.1. To find a new trade route to the East

1.4.2. To spread Christianity

1.4.3. To explore and conquer new lands

1.4.4. Improvements in ships and navigation made this prossible

1.5. Finding a new trade route to the East

1.5.1. Trade as the main reason for exploration

1.5.2. Rich people wanted : Spices like ginger and cinnamon Silk Jewels like emeralds

1.5.3. These were found in China, India and Islands near it.

1.5.4. These goods were brought by Muslim traders, but the Portuguese wanted to get directly to India and China

2. Chapter 2 : Portuguese Explorers

2.1. A new route to the East

2.1.1. The Portuguese were the first to look for a trading route to the East.

2.2. Prince Henry the Navigator

2.2.1. Third son of the King of Portugal

2.2.2. He started a sailing chool at his home in Sagres

2.2.3. He hired astronomers, ship-builders, sea captains and mapmakers He even employed Muslim sea captains to explain there sailing methods

2.2.4. This resulted in better ships and navigation techniques

2.3. Building better ships

2.3.1. To make better ships, they combined triangle and square sails to make it both fast and manoeuvrable

2.4. Helping sailors find their way

2.4.1. In the Middle Ages, sailors kept close to the coast. They navigated by using landmarks they could see like towns, churches or lighthouses.

2.4.2. If they were out of sight of the coast, they were lost.

2.4.3. In the Middle Ages new instruments were invented to overcome this problem Finding the direction with a compass Around 1200 AD, sailors began to use a compass This allowed sailors to work out in which direction they were travelling. In the 15th century someone put it in a glass case and put it on an iron stand Measuring depth with a piece of lead Sailors used a piece of lead on a rope to find out how deep the water was The rope had knots about 2 meters apart. A sailor would stand at the top of the bow of the ship and throw the piece of lead out. Measuring a ship's sped with a knotted rope To work out a ship's speed, a sailor tied a piece of wood to a knotted rope, and threw it out to sea. As the ship sailed on the piece of wood remained afloat, a sailor would count the number of knots passing through his hands during a certain period off time This unit is still used today Finding latitude with an astrolabe or a quadrant sailors needed to know where they were on the Earth's surface. To find out their latitude they used an instrument called an astrolabe or a quadrant

2.5. A sailor's life

2.5.1. Even with the improved ships a sailor's life was hard

2.5.2. Ships were tiny

2.5.3. The lac of vitamin C in the food caused scurvy

2.5.4. When water stored in barrels went foul, it could result in typhoid

2.6. Diaz does it !

2.6.1. In 1487, Bartholomew Diaz left Lisbon with three ships.

2.6.2. He had had to find out how far the coast of Africa went.

2.6.3. He mapped the entire West side of the African coast.

2.6.4. After nine months, a gale blew them out to sea, when they saw land again, it was North of them (they had reached the tip of the African continent)

2.6.5. Merchants in Lisbon were disappointed, the voyage took too long. They doubted if it would ever be possible to trade with the East. It took 10 years before anyone tried to find out

2.7. Vasco Da Gama sails to India

2.7.1. With the help of Diaz's maps, Da Gama takes a shortcut across the open sea. He reached the tip much faster

2.7.2. In 1497 De Gama sets sail for India with three ships

2.7.3. After he rounded the tip of Africa he managed to persuade an Arab pilot to guide him across the Indian Ocean to India

2.7.4. In May 1498 the four Portuguese caravels landed at the port of Calicut. Da Gama filled his ships with spices and returned a wealthy man. The Portuguese had at last found their trading route to the East.

2.8. Treaty of Tordesillas

2.8.1. To prevent a war between Spain and Portugal, Pope Alexander VI decided to divide the world between them.

2.8.2. All land to the East was to belong to the Portuguese and all the land to the West was to belong to the Spanish.

2.8.3. In 1494, both countries signed the treaty, accepting the division.

2.9. Results of Portuguese Exploration

2.9.1. Portugal found a new sea route to the East

2.9.2. They defeated the Arabs and took control of the spice trade between Asia and Europe

2.9.3. They built a powerful empire