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Assessment by Mind Map: Assessment

1. Definitions

1.1. Assessment

1.1.1. General term for a full range of procedures used to gather information about student learning

1.2. Test

1.2.1. Particular assessment set of questions given during a fixed time period with the same conditions for all students

1.3. Measurement

1.3.1. System of assigning numbers to test results based on a specific rule

1.4. (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, p. 27)

2. Instruction

2.1. Identify Instructional Goals

2.1.1. determine what students should learn from the classroom instruction

2.2. Preassess the Learner's Needs

2.2.1. Assessment can determine if students have the skill needed to proceed with the instruction

2.3. Assess the Learning Outcomes

2.3.1. Assessment can determine if the students were able to achieve the learning objectives provide short term learning goals provide feedback on the learning process provide information for overcoming learning difficulties

2.4. Provide Relevant Instruction

2.4.1. measurement and assessment monitor learning progress

2.5. Use of the Results

2.5.1. clarifies the learning goals

2.5.2. provides learning goals to work toward

2.5.3. provides feedback to the learning process

2.5.4. provides information for identifying learning difficulites

2.6. (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, pp. 31-33)

3. Procedures

3.1. Maximum Performance

3.1.1. What individuals can achieve with the best effort

3.2. Typical Performance

3.2.1. What individuals can achieve under typical conditions

3.3. Fixed-Choice Tests

3.3.1. Usually multiple choice Limitations include overemphasis of factual knowledge and lack of critical thinking and problem solving

3.4. Complex-Performance Assessments

3.4.1. Extended tasks to reflect student learning of the objectives

3.5. (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, pp. 34-36)

4. Principles

4.1. Specifies what is to be assessed

4.2. Relevance to learning

4.3. Comprehensive

4.3.1. uses a variety of procedures

4.4. Awareness of limitations

4.5. Assessment has a usesful purpose

4.6. (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, pp. 29-30)

5. Role in Classroom Instruction

5.1. Placement

5.1.1. determines performance at the beginning of instruction

5.2. Formative

5.2.1. monitors progress

5.3. Diagnostic

5.3.1. diagnoses learning disabilities

5.4. Summative

5.4.1. assess achievement at the end of instruction

5.5. (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, pp. 35-37)

6. Classification

6.1. Norm-referenced

6.1.1. performance relative to other group members

6.2. Criterion-referenced

6.2.1. describes the demonstration of a specific performance

6.3. (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, pp. 39)


7.1. Defintion

7.1.1. evaluates the use and interpretation of assessment results Content Validity Does the test measure what was taught and adhere to the teaching standards? Construct Validity Does the test measure specific characteristics of knowledge and skill? Criterion Validity Does the test provide similar results to other test of the same nature? Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, pp. 70-97 LeBlanc, 2009

7.2. Factors Influencing Validity

7.2.1. Issues within the test unclear instructions, inadequate time limits, questions too difficult or too hard

7.2.2. Administration of the test and scoring failure to follow administration instructions, inadequate scale for scoring

7.2.3. Student Response personal factors such as anxiety or lack of motivation

7.2.4. Inappropriate Criterion failure to compare to a similar testing group

7.2.5. Fairness equitable assessements for all students

7.2.6. (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, pp. 97-101)


8.1. Definition

8.1.1. The consistency of measurement compared to other results from similar assessments refers to the results of the assessment refes to a particular consistency reliability does not guarantee validity determined through statistical indicies (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, pp. 109-110) (LeBlanc, 2009)

8.2. Correlation

8.2.1. determine reliability by correlating two sets of scores, form the same assessment procedure or from equivalent forms of the same assessment

8.2.2. correlation coefficient mathematical expression of consistency between 0-1

8.2.3. (LeBlanc, 2009)

8.3. Standard Error of Measurement

8.3.1. mathematical way of expressing the variation in test scores high reliability indicates a lower standard or error (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, p. 120)

8.4. Factors Influencing Reliability

8.4.1. Number of Assessment Tasks 30 items or more recommended for assessment of skills.

8.4.2. Spread of Scores

8.4.3. Objectivity results are not influenced by judgement or opinion

8.4.4. (Miller, Linn & Gronlund, 2013, pp. 125-129)

9. References

9.1. Miller, M., Linn, R. and Gronlund. (2013) Measurement and assessment in teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc

9.2. LeBlanc, P. (2009). Key ideas in validity and reliability for teachers; Part 2. Retrieved from