I.D.E.A. DISABILITY CATEGORIES with definitions and suggestions for accommodations and assistive ...

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I.D.E.A. DISABILITY CATEGORIES with definitions and suggestions for accommodations and assistive technologies. Hover over this icon to see DEFINITIONS. Follow the arrow icon for CASE STUDIES and additional resources. SHANDA BONN, June 2015. by Mind Map: I.D.E.A. DISABILITY CATEGORIES with definitions and suggestions for accommodations and assistive technologies. Hover over this icon to see DEFINITIONS. Follow the arrow icon for CASE STUDIES and additional resources. SHANDA BONN, June 2015.

1. AUTISM

1.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

1.1.1. Have student or teacher share class notes

1.1.2. Use visual presentations of verbal material, such as word webs and visual organizers

1.1.3. Use word processor instead of handwriting assignments

1.1.4. Give directions in a short, clear, step by step manner and allow more time to complete a task or test

1.1.5. Maintain a routine; post a visual schedule on student's desk

1.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY

1.2.1. Electronic dictionaries, thesaureses, writing assistant software

1.2.2. Audio recorder to capture oral responses if easier than writing

1.2.3. Word processor to type notes or essays

1.2.4. Calculator

2. DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

2.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

2.1.1. Physical delays

2.1.1.1. Adapt assignments in accordance with the delay. For example, if a student has difficulty handwriting use fill-in-the-blank work sheets instead of short essay response (if not teaching/testing essay writing skills). If lengthy writing is involved, let student use a computer.

2.1.2. Cognitive delays

2.1.2.1. Provide written and verbal instructions; use visual aids; allow alternate methods of demonstrating comprehension depending on the method most comfortable for the student; allow extra time for responses, tasks and tests.

2.1.3. Communication delays

2.1.3.1. Allow alternate methods for a student to communicate such as small dry erase board or computer.

2.1.4. Social or emotional delays

2.1.4.1. Assign a "buddy" for lunchtime, reading, etc.; establish a "safe zone" where a student can go when feeling anxious like a bean bag chair in a quiet corner; provide assistance when moving between classrooms or around the building or allow student to leave class 2-3 minutes early to avoid crowded hallways.

2.1.5. Adaptive (behavioral) delays

2.1.5.1. Pair student with students modeling good behavior; reward positive behavior; use non-verbal cues or code word to communicate inappropriate behavior

2.1.5.1.1. Ideas for rewards: video game breaks, parent-approved and provided snacks, no-homework pass

2.1.6. PHYSICAL DELAYS

2.1.6.1. Fill-in-the-blank worksheets or shortened writing assignments

2.1.7. COGNITIVE DELAYS

2.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

2.2.1. Augmentative and alternative communication software

2.2.2. Word processor

2.2.3. FOR PHYSICAL DELAYS

2.2.3.1. Locker accommodations, such as a key instead of combination lock

2.2.4. COGNITIVE DELAYS

3. DEAFNESS

3.1. How does IDEA distinguish Deafness from Hearing Loss? Deafness is viewed as a condition that prevents an individual from receiving sound in all or most of its forms. In contrast, a child with a hearing loss can generally respond to auditory stimuli, including speech. Accommodations and assistive technologies will generally be the same as for hearing impaired students EXCEPT that assistive listening devices will not be useful.

4. DEAF-BLINDNESS

4.1. Each person with Deaf-Blindness disability has varying levels of each so their needs will differ. Refer to "Hearing Impairment" and "Visual Impairment Including Blindess" above for ideas for accommodations and assistive technologies.

5. EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE

5.1. Anxiety disorders Bipolar disorder Conduct disorder Eating disorders Obsessive-compulsive disorder Psychotic disorders

5.1.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

5.1.1.1. Provide alternatives to reading aloud in class

5.1.1.2. Allow extra time for responses, tasks, tests

5.1.1.3. Break down instructions, assignments and tests into smaller pieces to alleviate stress/pressure

5.1.1.4. Provide sample or practice tests to decrease test anxiety

5.1.1.5. Provide fewer problems on a worksheet

5.1.1.6. Allow student to work independently rather than do a group project if necessary

5.1.1.7. Provide a safe space for a temporary "escape" like a corner with a bean bag chair and magazines

5.1.1.8. Establish a plan to deal with medication side effects (such as a water bottle for thirst, extra water breaks)

5.1.1.9. Maintain a regular routine and avoid abrupt transitions

5.1.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

5.1.2.1. Electronic dictionaries, thesaureses, writing assistant software

5.1.2.2. Word processor

5.1.2.3. Calculator

5.1.2.4. Augmentative and alternative communication software

6. HEARING IMPAIRMENT

6.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

6.1.1. Favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading

6.1.2. Captioned films/videos

6.1.3. Instructions in writing or sign language

6.1.4. Class notes provided by other students or teacher

6.1.5. Subject matter presented early to allow student to have material interpreted so s/he can better participate in class

6.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

6.2.1. Assistive listening devices (hearing aids, microphone for the teacher, etc.)

6.2.2. Caption and sub-title supported media player software

6.2.3. Real time text (RTT) software

6.2.4. Show sounds or visual alert software

6.2.5. Total conversation software

7. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

7.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

7.1.1. When giving instructions show work samples and/or use visual aids

7.1.2. Provide hands-on tasks rather than written assignments

7.1.3. Break new tasks into smaller steps, introducing each task one step at a time and helping them to complete the step before moving onto the next one

7.1.4. Link lessons to real-world experiences in order to teach life skills

7.1.4.1. Example: To teach money concepts, set up a "store" where students can spend Monopoly money on plastic grocery items

7.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

7.2.1. Cognitive reminding software or device (to help students remember tasks, meet deadlines, and transition)

7.2.2. OCR and text-to-speech software

7.2.3. Reading software

8. MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

8.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

8.1.1. Because more than one impairment is present, accommodations will be a combination of approaches as well. Some accommodations that will often cross over are: textbooks in alternate formats; alternatives to long writing assignments; partial participation in group assignments; oral and printed directions presented in simple, sequential steps; visual aids; extra time for responses, tasks and tests; regular routines.

8.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

8.2.1. Augmentative and alternative communication software

8.2.2. Word processor

8.2.3. Calculator

9. ORTHOPEDIC IMPAIRMENT

9.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

9.1.1. Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements as well as ease of movement around the room

9.1.2. Orthopedic impairments are often accompanied by other medical conditions. Make accommodations based on those impairments. Getting tired quickly is a common problem. Allow the student short, frequent breaks.

9.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

9.2.1. speech recognition software

9.2.2. screen reading software

9.2.3. Augmentative and alternative communication software

10. OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRMENTS

10.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

10.1.1. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

10.1.1.1. Post rules, schedules, and assignments. Clear rules and routines will help a student with AD/HD. Have set times for specific tasks. Call attention to changes in the schedule.

10.1.1.2. Show the student how to use an assignment book and a daily schedule. Also teach study skills and learning strategies, and reinforce these regularly.

10.1.1.3. Help the student channel his or her physical activity (e.g., let the student do some work standing up or at the board). Provide regularly scheduled breaks.

10.1.1.4. Make sure directions are given step by step, and that the student is following the directions. Give directions both verbally and in writing. Many students with AD/HD also benefit from doing the steps as separate tasks.

10.1.1.5. Let the student do work on a computer.

10.1.2. Health impairments other than AD/HD

10.1.2.1. For the classroom student with acute health issues: Have a plan in case of an onset of symptoms; have a plan for what to do to manage side effects of medication (such as water bottle for thirst, extra bathroom breaks); allow for partial participation in group projects to reduce stress on student; have a clearly established routine for recording and communicating the student's daily classwork and homework to the parents/guardians.

10.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

10.2.1. Electronic dictionaries, thesaureses, writing assistant software

10.2.2. Audio recorder to capture oral responses if easier than writing

10.2.3. Word processor with special features like on-screen keyboards, motion-based alternative text entry, speech recognition software or word prediction software

10.2.4. Calculator

10.2.5. Augmentative and alternative communication software

11. SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY

11.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

11.1.1. Break tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing. Give the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests. Let the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities. Let the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder. Let the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech.

11.1.2. Allow for alternate testing methods and settings

11.1.3. Teach organizational skills, study skills, and learning strategies

11.1.4. Work with fewer items per page or line to help student focus

11.1.5. Use visual presentations of verbal material, such as word webs and visual organizers

11.1.6. Allow student to submit responses in an alternate format that is easier for the student

11.1.7. Administer tests in a different setting such as a quiet room with few distractions

11.1.8. Allow extra time for responses, assignments, tests

11.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

11.2.1. Tape recorders

11.2.2. Cognitive reminding software or device (to help students remember tasks, meet deadlines, and transition)

11.2.3. Electronic dictionaries, thesauruses, writing assistant software

11.2.4. OCR and text-to-speech software

11.2.5. Cognitive reminding software

11.2.6. Electronic dictionaries, thesauruses, writing assistant software

11.2.7. Optical Character Recognition software (OCR)

11.2.8. Text-to-speech software to listen rather than read

12. SPEECH OR LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT

12.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

12.1.1. For the student whose speech/language impairment involves comprehension difficulty use visual aids for instruction

12.1.2. Allow an alternative to oral presentations like PowerPoint slideshow, poster, graphic organizer, mind map, collage, etc.

12.1.3. Be near student when asking for an oral response and allow extra time for the response

12.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

12.2.1. Augmentative and alternative communication software

13. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

13.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

13.1.1. Allow extra time for responses, tasks, homework and tests

13.1.2. Give directions one step at a time and include written instructions

13.1.3. Have consistent routines and warn the student in advance of changes to a routine

13.1.4. Teach organizational skills

13.1.4.1. Use a smartphone timer or countdown clock for time management

13.1.4.2. Mark text with highlighters

13.1.4.3. Use a planner

13.1.4.4. Teach study skills

13.1.5. Provide "brain breaks" like a quick walk, a mini-nap (head on desk), music in headphones, snack or water

13.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

13.2.1. Electronic dictionaries, thesaureses, writing assistant software

13.2.2. Audio recorder to capture oral responses if easier than writing

13.2.3. Word processor with special features like on-screen keyboards, motion-based alternative text entry, speech recognition software or word prediction software

13.2.4. Calculator

14. VISUAL IMPAIRMENT INCLUDING BLINDNESS

14.1. ACCOMMODATIONS

14.1.1. Audio textbooks

14.1.2. Printed materials in larger format

14.1.3. A reading partner

14.1.4. Recording a lesson rather than take notes

14.1.5. Oral rather than written responses

14.1.6. Ensure work space is well lit

14.2. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

14.2.1. OCR and text-to-speech software

14.2.2. Screen magnification software

14.2.3. Screen reading software

14.2.4. Braille displays

14.2.5. Handheld magnifying glass

14.2.6. Video magnifiers

15. This chart does not discuss: (1) Modifications, which are different from accommodations. Accommodations help students complete the same assignments and tests as other students. Modifications alter assignments and tests in such a way that a student is not necessarily meeting grade-level standards. This distinction is especially important at the high school level when students may not receive modifications unless they are working towards a modified rather than regular diploma. The student's IEP team along with parents and the student should discuss what is more appropriate, accommodations or modifications; (2) District-provided SPED support outside the classroom such as the services of a Speech Language Pathologists (SLP) or reading specialist. The accommodations and technologies suggested here are ideas for the classroom teacher.

16. SOURCES: Center for Parent Information and Resources. Categories of Disability Under IDEA. March 2012. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/#dd Northeast Technical Assistance Center. Considerations When Teaching Students Who are Deaf- Blind (pdf). 2001. http://wwwcms.hutchcc.edu/uploadedFiles/Student_Resources/Disability_Services/tpshtdb.pdf Pacer Center. School Accommodation and Modification Ideas for Students who Receive Special Education Services (pdf). nd. http://www.pacer.org/parent/php/PHP-c49.pdf Strom, Erich. Common Modifications and Accommodations. nd. Understood. http://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/treatments-approaches/educational-strategies/common-modifications-and-accommodations UNESCO. Opening New Avenues for Empowerment (Global Report). February 2013. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002197/219767e.pdf