Special Education Categories and Accommodations

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Special Education Categories and Accommodations by Mind Map: Special Education Categories and Accommodations

1. Autism

2. Deaf-Blindness

3. Deafness

4. Developmental Delay

5. Emotional Disturbance

6. Hearing Impairment

7. Intellectual Disability

8. Multiple Disabilities

9. Orthopedic Impairment

10. Specific Learning Disability

11. Traumatic Brain Injury

12. Speech or Language Impairment

13. Visual Impairment, including Blindness

14. Other Health Impairment

15. Environmental Modifications: *Minimize auditory and visual stimulation *Small group instructions *Structure and limit student's schedule

16. Assistive Technology: *Smartphones *Specialized keyboards *Magnified screens *Canes *etc.

17. Modifications: *Substitute oral assignments with written papers *Modify grading based on speech impairment *Give student time to speak

18. Assistive Technology: *AAC (Augmentive or Alternative Communication, includes sign language and various communication boards, both manual and electronic) *Software, e.g. First Words, a language program that has a number of applications for teaching those who are developing or reacquiring language functions

19. Modifications: *Allow for time-outs as necessary *Provide a variety of instructions and options for students to chose from, e.g. written and verbal instructions, visual supports

20. Assistive Technology: *Augmentative communication techniques, can include sign language, picture symbols, electronic communication devices, and even computer programs and video modeling

21. Modifications: *Symbolic Communication: Touch cues Object symbols Sign language Gestures Picture symbols Fingerspelling Signed English Braille American Sign Language Lip-reading speech Pidgin Signed English Tadoma method of speech reading Large print

22. Assistive Technology: *Computer adaptations include Braille translation software, Braille converting displays, Braille note-takers

23. Modifications: *Depending on student's level of visual functioning: access to instructional material in appropriate media (e.g. Braille, large print texts, etc.)

24. Assistive Technology: *Depending on student's level of visual functioning: Braille display, converters, and notetakers; *Screen reader, talking calculators *Magnifiers

25. Modification: *Manual communication *Using amplification systems *Assistance of note-taker or interpreter *Visual instruction

26. Assistive Technology: *Hearing Aids and Auditory Training Devices *Computer programs

27. Modification: *Visual instruction *Manual communication *Assistance of note-taker or interpreter

28. Assistive Technology: *Computer programs, converting speech into written text *TDD (Telecommunication Devices for the Deaf)

29. Modification: *Emotional Delay: prepare in advance for change of routine; provide positive reinforcement (Verbal, stickers, chart) *Mental Delay: simplify worksheets; repeat instructions, provide different activities

30. Assistive Technology: *depends on individual needs

31. Assistive Technology: *Reading: text-to-speech sorftware; audio books *Writing: word processors; voice recognition software

32. Modifications: *Breaking tasks into smaller parts; limit amount of information on worksheets etc.

33. Modifications, example ADHD: *Allowing extra time for these students to shift from one activity or environment to the next. *Teaching specific techniques for organizing thoughts and materials. *Allowing extra time for finishing assignments or for testing. *For more complex activities, simplifying steps to make them more manageable. *Seating student close to the teacher and away from any peers that might be distracting. *Posting a daily and weekly schedule that clearly delineates each activity. These schedules can then be used as prompts to direct the student back on task. *Keeping unstructured time at a minimum.

34. Assistive Technology: *depends heavily on needs of the individual

35. Modifications: *Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements *Focusing Instruction on development of gross and fine motor skills *Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices

36. Assistive Technology: *Devices to Access Information: focus on aiding the student to access the educational material. These devices include: -speech recognition software -screen reading software -augmentative and alternative communication devices (such as communication boards) -academic software packages for students with disabilities *Devices for Positioning and Mobility: focus on helping the student participate in educational activities. These devices include: -canes -walkers -crutches -wheelchairs -specialized exercise equipment -specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development

37. Modifications: *Depends heavily on individual *Reciprocal/peer tutoring

38. Assistive Technology: *Handheld personal computer, including software such as the Visual Assistant (teachers and service providers can program a number of different skill sets and instructions to be accessible to the student at any time)

39. Modifications: *If possible, teaching one concept or activity component at a time *If possible, teaching students in small groups, or one-on-one, if possible *Providing multiple opportunities to practice skills in a number of different settings *Using physical and verbal prompting to guide correct responses, and providing specific verbal praise to reinforce these responses

40. Assistive Technology: *learning software that can tailor content to address the interests of the student; instruction can be adapted to meet the needs of the individual.

41. Modifications: *Best practices for students with emotional disorders are often best practices for all students, e.g. consistent and specific praise is a great technique to utilize with all students in the classroom, but can be particularly effective with students with emotional disorders.

42. Assistive Technology: *Word processing software

43. Case Study: http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/ca/rti/downloads/Ellie.pdf

44. Case Study: http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/ca/rti/downloads/Megan.pdf

45. Case Study: http://www.emstac.org/registered/topics/autism/case.htm