Student Assessments for Middle School Math Class

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Student Assessments for Middle School Math Class by Mind Map: Student Assessments for Middle School Math Class

1. Formative

1.1. Purpose

1.2. Definition

1.3. Outcome

1.3.1. This assessment is designed as an assessment of learning and for learning. Formative assessment is ongoing and can be used to redirect teacher's teaching strategies and gauge what needs to be emphasized. Certain formative assessments can be used as summative assessment.

1.4. Advantage

1.4.1. Formative assessment is any assessment task designed to promote students' learning. These tasks give both teachers and students feedback, so that teaching and learning activities can be altered according to the results. Formative assessment is different from summative assessment, the goal of which is to measure mastery. Research indicates the following conclusions: • Formative assessment produces greater increases in student achievement and is cheaper than other efforts to boost achievement, including reducing class sizes and increasing teachers' content knowledge. • Formative assessment that occurs within and between instructional units (medium-cycle assessment) as well as within and between lessons (short-cycle assessment) has been shown to improve students' achievement. Formative assessment across marking periods, quarters, semesters, or years (intervals of four weeks to one year) has not been shown to improve students' achievement. • In classrooms where medium- and short-cycle formative assessment was used, teachers reported greater professional satisfaction and increased student engagement in learning.

1.5. Disadvantage

1.5.1. The questions and methods used are not shared between teachers, and they are not critically reviewed in relation to what they actually assess. Approaches are used in which students are compared with another, and assessment feedback teaches low-achieving students that they lack “ability” causing them to come to believe that they are not able to learn.

1.6. Example

1.7. Resources

1.7.1. Formative Assessment. How can I respond to students in ways that improve their learning? Retrieved from http://map.mathshell.org/pd/modules/1_Formative_Assessment/pdf/1_Formative_Assessment_Guide.pdf

1.7.2. Practical Assessment. Research and Evaluation. Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/pdf/v14n7.pdf

1.7.3. Benefits of Formative Assessments. Retrieved from http://www.nctm.org/Research-and-Advocacy/research-brief-and-clips/Benefits-of-Formative-Assessment/

2. Summative

2.1. Purpose

2.2. Definition

2.3. Outcome

2.3.1. This assessment is designed primarily as an assessment of learning. Summative indicates what students can show their mastery not the process of learning.

2.4. Advantage

2.5. Disadvantage

2.5.1. Fairness and effectiveness, especially when summative-assessment results are used for high-stakes purposes is debatable. In these cases, educators, experts, reformers, policy makers, and others may debate whether assessments are being designed and used appropriately, or whether high-stakes tests are either beneficial or harmful to the educational process.

2.6. Example

2.6.1. -chapter tests -midterm exam -final exam -quizzes -projects -MAP exams -standarized tests

2.7. Resources

2.7.1. Glossary of Education Reform. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/summative-assessment/

3. Performanced-Based

3.1. Purpose

3.2. Definition

3.3. Outcome

3.3.1. This assessment is designed as an assessment for learning. Learning real-life problem solving skills cannot be measured but can be taught.

3.4. Advantage

3.4.1. Traditional testing helps answer the question, “Do you know it?” and performance assessment helps answer the question, “How well can you use what you know?”

3.5. Disadvantage

3.5.1. Two initial concerns of teachers moving toward performance-based classrooms include the amount of time needed for performance tasks and the subjectivity traditionally associated with teacher assessment and assigning “grades.”

3.6. Example

3.7. Resources

3.7.1. Teacher's Guide to Performance-Based Learning and Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/196021/chapters/What_is_Performance-Based_Learning_and_Assessment,_and_Why_is_it_Important%C2%A2.aspx

4. High-Stakes

4.1. Purpose

4.2. Definition

4.3. Outcome

4.3.1. This assessment is also designed primarily as an assessment of learning. It indicates what students are able to show their mastery on tests.

4.4. Advantage

4.4.1. Well-designed achievement tests are helpful in providing an idea of your child's current knowledge and deficits. This helps educators know what instruction is needed to keep him on track or to bring him up to speed with his grade level. Aptitude tests show where his learning potential lies versus where he is performing. This can be used to determine whether interventions are needed to help him reach his potential. Also, when high-stakes testing is used appropriately as a measure of school and teacher quality, your child's education is improved by the changes made and funding received based on the results.

4.5. Disadvantage

4.5.1. A big criticism of high-stakes testing is how much can ride on the results. When teacher success is being assessed by student performance, it's possible for classroom instruction to become test-driven. Sometimes referred to as "teaching to the test," this means instruction is based solely on the content measured by the exam, ignoring other content that should be taught because it won't be tested Pressure to have students perform well creates an atmosphere in which test-preparation is a constant focus. High-stakes testing also potentially determines whether or not your child graduates, is retained, goes to summer school or, sometimes, is referred for special education services.

4.6. Example

4.7. Resources

4.7.1. High Stakes Testing Pros and Cons. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/magazine/article/high-stakes-testing-pros-cons/

4.7.2. How does High Stakes Testing Benefit Students? Retrieved from http://www.teach-nology.com/litined/assessment/high_stakes/

4.7.3. High Stake Testing. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/high-stakes-testing1/

5. Portfolio

5.1. Purpose

5.2. Definition

5.3. Outcome

5.3.1. This assessment is designed as an assessment of learning and for learning. Students learn from understanding how to decode and achieve exemplar work and teachers can use portfolio to know what they are learning.

5.4. Advantage

5.4.1. There is conscious effort by a student to generate quality output, thus developing sense of responsibility. Critical thinking skills, creative assessment, selectivity and reflective analysis are also enhanced. Student anxiety on taking examinations is also allayed.

5.5. Disadvantage

5.5.1. One is that it can be very demanding for students, parents, teachers and/or policymakers to execute. Additional time is imperative for planning, identifying instructional goals, developing strategies, identifying suitable instructional approaches, conferring with involved parties, assisting students' generation of portfolios, and evaluating outputs. The creation of portfolios in itself is time consuming and requires utmost dedication and discipline to carry out. Additionally, no valid grading criteria as of yet have been established to evaluate quality of generated portfolios. Since outcomes are very personal, contents varying from one student to another, it would be very difficult to objectively assess the contents of portfolios.

5.6. Example

5.7. Resources

5.7.1. The Pros and Cons of Assessing Students through Portfolios. Retrived from http://www.teach-nology.com/litined/assessment/alternative/portfolios/

5.7.2. Math Portfolios. Retrieved from https://www.teachervision.com/math/teaching-methods/6380.html

6. Authentic

6.1. Purpose

6.2. Definition

6.3. Outcome

6.3.1. This assessment is designed for learning since the students are able to gain confident in their learning.

6.4. Advantage

6.4.1. Authentic assessment has been a popular method for assessing student learning among specific populations of students such as those with severe disabilities, very young children, and gifted students. Its emphasis is on process over product.

6.5. Disadvantage

6.5.1. By emphasizing complexity and relevance rather than structure and standardization, inter-rater reliability can be difficult to achieve with authentic assessment. Inter-rater agreement is increased with clearly defined criteria, including exemplars and non-exemplars and initial and on-going training of the evaluators. Unfortunately educators rarely have adequate guidelines to help analyze and score student products

6.6. Example

6.7. Resources

6.7.1. Authentic Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/authentic-assessment/

7. Self-Assessment

7.1. Purpose

7.2. Definition

7.3. Outcome

7.3.1. This assessment is designed as an assessment for learning and of learning. Students need to able to measure where they are in their learning and how to get to achievable point of learning. Teachers can use this to redirect their instructions.

7.4. Advantage

7.4.1. Confidence and efficacy play a critical role in accurate and meaningful self-assessment and goal-setting. Self-confidence influences “[the] learning goals that students set and the effort they devote to accomplishing those goals. An upward cycle of learning results when students confidently set learning goals that are moderately challenging yet realistic, and then exert the effort, energy, and resources needed to accomplish those goals”

7.4.2. By explicitly teaching students how to set appropriate goals as well as how to assess their work realistically and accurately, teachers can help to promote this upward cycle of learning and self-confidence.

7.5. Disadvantage

7.5.1. The drawback is that this does take quite a bit of time. The first few times will require more time but with practice, students became more efficient at reviewing the key concepts and recording them as success criteria.

7.6. Example

7.7. Resources

7.7.1. The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat. Capacity Building Series. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/studentselfassessment.pdf

7.7.2. Teaching Rocks! Assessment as Learning: Student Self-Assessment During Math Lessons. Retrieved from http://teachingrocks.ca/assessment-as-learning-student-self-assessment-during-math-lessons/

7.7.3. Math Rubric. Retrieved from http://www.exemplars.com/resources/rubrics/student-rubrics

7.7.4. Exemplars. Peer and Self-Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.exemplars.com/resources/formative-assessment/benefits-of-peer-and-self-assessment

8. Peer-Assessment

8.1. Purpose

8.2. Definition

8.3. Outcome

8.3.1. This assessment is designed as of learning and for learning. Teachers and students will be able to know what they need to learn and how to learn. Also students can reflect what they learned.

8.4. Advantage

8.4.1. Pupils need to be supported in giving effective feedback, helping them to understand the different types of feedback that can be given and how each type can help others to improve their work.

8.4.2. Having assessed the work of others, pupils will find it easier to identify weaknesses in their own work and to see how they can make improvements. They should be encouraged to reflect on their own development and progress, comparing their current work with that produced previously and with their own personal targets.

8.5. Disadvantage

8.5.1. It is also important that pupils can admit to areas of weakness without risk to their self-esteem. There are lots of ways for pupils of different ages to indicate their confidence or familiarity with a particular concept or topic and to articulate where they are in relation to learning objectives and success criteria. Pupils tend to be more critical of the work of their peers than teachers would be. But our pupils, even low-ability pupils, find it very motivating because they have a larger audience for their work.

8.6. Example

8.7. Resources

8.7.1. Exemplars. Peer and Self-Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.exemplars.com/resources/formative-assessment/benefits-of-peer-and-self-assessment

8.7.2. UCD Teaching and Learning Resources. Retrieved from http://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/UCDTLA0033.pdf

9. Diagnostic

9.1. Purpose

9.2. Definition

9.3. Outcome

9.3.1. This assessment is designed as for learning because it will help guide teacher how to scaffold.

9.4. Advantage

9.4.1. They also provide a baseline for understanding how much learning has taken place after the learning activity is completed.

9.5. Disadvantage

9.5.1. Diagnostic assessment looks backwards rather than forwards. If undiagnosed, might limit their engagement in new learning.

9.6. Example

9.6.1. -previous school assessments -pre-test -PISA released items -interviews -practical activities, for example, a measuring task as a diagnostic tool -using a rich task used as a diagnostic tool -cooperative learning activity used as a diagnostic tool -teacher questioning-do nows

9.7. Resources

9.7.1. Starting Point. Diagnostic and Formative Assessment. Retrieved from http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/assessment/formative.html

9.7.2. Does Diagnostic Math Testing Improve Student Learning? Retrieved from http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/report/R_1011JBR.pdf