Human Sexual Reproductive System

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Human Sexual Reproductive System by Mind Map: Human Sexual Reproductive System

1. Heredity

1.1. The nuclei(plural of nucleus) of the sperm and egg contain genes

1.1.1. Genes are passed on to the new individual during fertilisation

1.1.2. The basic characteristic of a person is determined by the genes Sperm contains father's DNA Ovum contains mother's DNA Zygote contains the mixture of parents' DNA

1.2. The characteristics the offspring inherit from the parents are known as hereditary characteristics

1.2.1. Egs of hereditary characteristics in a family Hair type Skin tone Chin

2. Puberty

2.1. Boys

2.1.1. Starts puberty between 13 to 16 yrs old

2.1.2. Facial hair starts to grow

2.1.3. voice-box enlarges and voice deepens

2.1.4. penis and testes increase in size

2.1.5. production of sperms begins and ejaculation occurs

2.2. Girls

2.2.1. Starts puberty between 11 to 14 yrs old

2.2.2. Breasts and uterus enlarge

2.2.3. Hips broaden

2.2.4. Menstruation begins

2.2.5. Ovums start to release

2.3. Common in Boys and Girls

2.3.1. The production of sex cells marks the beginning of puberty

2.3.2. Hair starts to grow in the armpits

2.3.3. hair starts to grow in the pubic region

2.3.4. Height grows rapidly

2.3.5. Reproductive System becomes active

2.3.6. Start to grow sex cells and sex hormones

3. Menstruation

3.1. Usually last 28 days

4. Menstruation

4.1. Marks the starting of menstual cycle

4.2. To allow the breaking down of uterine lining together with the blood and release the unfertilised ovum

4.3. When it stops,the uterine lining is very thin.Uterine lining then starts to repair and grow in thickness.

5. Repair and growth of the uterine lining

6. Fertile period

6.1. Uterine lining becomes thick

6.2. Ovulation

6.2.1. most likely will start on the 14th day of the menstrual cycle

6.2.2. A mature ovum will be released from either side of the ovary The ovum will survive in the human body for 2 days

6.2.3. Ejaculation during this period is likely to result in pregnancy

7. Uterine lining remains thick

7.1. To supply the embryo with nuteients and oxygen for growth

8. Premarital Sex

8.1. Having sex before marriage.

8.2. Problems that may occur

8.2.1. unwanted pregnancy

8.2.2. Sexually transmitted infections(STI)

8.2.3. No money to support education and result in withdraw from the study

8.2.4. Male not ready to marry the female

9. Abortion

9.1. termination(end) of a pregnancy

9.2. A doctor surgically removes the embryo or foetus

9.3. Usually carried out within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.(beyond 12 weeks can be illegal

9.4. May infect or damage parts of the sexual reproductive system

9.5. May cause the woman to have difficulty to get pregnant again.

9.6. reasons for abortion

9.6.1. Mother may permanently harmed if the pregnancy continues.(The zygote stuck in oviduct)

9.6.2. The child may be born physically or mentally handicapped

9.6.3. Life of the mother and/or foetus is/are in danger

10. Sexually transmitted infections(STI)

10.1. Transmitted by

10.1.1. Having sex with an infected partner

10.1.2. Having multiple sex partners

10.1.3. Parents or partner

10.1.4. contact with body fluids

10.1.5. Contaminated blood

10.2. Prevention methods

10.2.1. avoid having multiple sex partners

10.2.2. avoid sharing instruments which may break the skin(razor,toothbrushes)

10.2.3. Use only needles that are free from bacterias and viruses

10.2.4. No abusing drugs or sharing of injection needles

10.2.5. Ensure donated blood is screened

10.3. Different infections

10.3.1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) Infected by viruses May causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome(AIDS) Incurable cause death Infection stage of HIV Immune system is severely damaged Attacks the immune system Makes the person to lose immunity and protection against common infections(eg:fever) Infected person will suffer from severe weight loss,lung infections and brain infections

10.3.2. Syphillis May suffer from blindness and inability to move some parts of the body If left untreated,may lead to heart failure,insanity or even death. Infected by bacteria

10.3.3. Gonorrhoea Infected person may become infertile Causes blind when the bacteria enter the baby's eyes Infected by bacteria

11. reproductive organs

11.1. male

11.1.1. urethra Tube which pass out uterine and spems

11.1.2. testis Produces sperms and male sex hormones

11.1.3. scrotum External skin which hold testes

11.1.4. sperms Male reproductive cell have a tail movement of the tails helps the sperm to swim towards the egg have a head

11.1.5. sperm duct A muscular tube that carries sperms from testis to urethra for ejaculation

11.1.6. male sex glands Secrete a fluid containing nutrients and enzymes It reduces friction so the sperms can swim towards the ovums faster The nutrients and enzymes provide the sperms with the energy to move.

11.1.7. penis Erect when sexually excited Insect into vagina during sexual intercourse Sperms are ejaculated through the penis during sexual intercouse

11.1.8. storage duct Store the sperms produced by the testes

11.2. female

11.2.1. fallopian tube(oviduct) A muscular tube connecting the ovary to the uterus The wall of the oviduct contracts to push the mature egg along the oviduct towards the uterus

11.2.2. ovary ovum(egg) contains a nucleus female reproductive cell

11.2.3. vagina(birth canal) A muscular tube Connect cervix to the outside of the body

11.2.4. cervix A ring of muscle at the lower end of the uterus Forms a barrier between the uterus and vagina Hold the foetus in place until giving birth During birth,it expands and allows the baby to pass through it

11.2.5. uterus(womb) Develop fertilised ovum into foetus during pregnancy uterine lining Where fertilised ovum is implanted in

12. nucleus

13. Sexual Intercourse

13.1. Involves fertilisation

13.1.1. requires sperm to fuse with the egg

13.2. During sexual intercourse,erect penis is inserted into the vagina

13.3. Penis ejaculates semen into upper end of the vagina and sperms will swim into the uterus

14. Fertilisation

14.1. nucleus of the sperm fuses with the nucleus of the egg

14.2. sperms deposited into the vagina and swim towards the ovum

14.3. Fertilised egg divides repeatedly to form the embryo

14.3.1. Embryo moves into the uterus and implant onto the uterine lining.The woman is now pregnant. Embryo may stack in the oviduct and causes the oviduct to burst which will then causes the death of the mother and the embryo The embryo gets the nutrients from the uterine lining

15. Pregnancy

15.1. After 9 months,the embryo develops into a foetus or unborn baby

15.2. Its legal to marry with a sibling from father side but not mother's

16. Birth Control Methods

16.1. By preventing ovulation

16.1.1. Contraceptive Pills Contain female sex hormones which prevent ovulation Prevent the release of a mature egg Must note the amount May suffer from side effects

16.2. By preventing implantation

16.2.1. Intra-Uterine Device(IUD) Inserted by a doctor Disrupt the function of the uterus by preventing the embryo becoming implanted to the uterine lining. Often used by a newly married couple

16.3. By Surgical(Only permanant method)

16.3.1. Vasectomy(Male) Tying and cutting part of the sperm ducts No ejaculation Unable to make the spouse pregnant

16.3.2. Tubal Ligation(Female) Tying and cutting of both oviducts Prevent sperms from meeting the egg Fertilisation will not occur

16.4. By preventing ferlisation

16.4.1. Condom To cover erect penis before sexual intercourse Impermeable to sperms Impermeable to bacteria and viruses(prevent STI)

16.4.2. Diaphragm Inserted into the vagina and placed over the cervix Impermeable to sperms

16.4.3. Spermicide Kills or block the sperms from entering Inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse Not reliable on its own,ofen used with a condom or diaphragm

16.5. Some temporary methods

16.5.1. Not having sex at all(abstinence)

16.5.2. Withdrawal of the penis just before ejaculation

16.5.3. Avoid having sex during ovulation

16.5.4. Use of chemicals

16.5.5. Use of mechanical devices