Human Sexual Reproductive System

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Human Sexual Reproductive System by Mind Map: Human Sexual Reproductive System

1. reproductive organs

1.1. male

1.1.1. urethra

1.1.1.1. Tube which pass out uterine and spems

1.1.2. testis

1.1.2.1. Produces sperms and male sex hormones

1.1.3. scrotum

1.1.3.1. External skin which hold testes

1.1.4. sperms

1.1.4.1. Male reproductive cell

1.1.4.2. have a tail

1.1.4.2.1. movement of the tails helps the sperm to swim towards the egg

1.1.4.3. have a head

1.1.5. sperm duct

1.1.5.1. A muscular tube that carries sperms from testis to urethra for ejaculation

1.1.6. male sex glands

1.1.6.1. Secrete a fluid containing nutrients and enzymes

1.1.6.1.1. It reduces friction so the sperms can swim towards the ovums faster

1.1.6.1.2. The nutrients and enzymes provide the sperms with the energy to move.

1.1.7. penis

1.1.7.1. Erect when sexually excited

1.1.7.2. Insect into vagina during sexual intercourse

1.1.7.3. Sperms are ejaculated through the penis during sexual intercouse

1.1.8. storage duct

1.1.8.1. Store the sperms produced by the testes

1.2. female

1.2.1. fallopian tube(oviduct)

1.2.1.1. A muscular tube connecting the ovary to the uterus

1.2.1.2. The wall of the oviduct contracts to push the mature egg along the oviduct towards the uterus

1.2.2. ovary

1.2.2.1. ovum(egg)

1.2.2.1.1. contains a nucleus

1.2.2.1.2. female reproductive cell

1.2.3. vagina(birth canal)

1.2.3.1. A muscular tube

1.2.3.2. Connect cervix to the outside of the body

1.2.4. cervix

1.2.4.1. A ring of muscle at the lower end of the uterus

1.2.4.2. Forms a barrier between the uterus and vagina

1.2.4.3. Hold the foetus in place until giving birth

1.2.4.4. During birth,it expands and allows the baby to pass through it

1.2.5. uterus(womb)

1.2.5.1. Develop fertilised ovum into foetus during pregnancy

1.2.5.2. uterine lining

1.2.5.3. Where fertilised ovum is implanted in

2. nucleus

3. Sexual Intercourse

3.1. Involves fertilisation

3.1.1. requires sperm to fuse with the egg

3.2. During sexual intercourse,erect penis is inserted into the vagina

3.3. Penis ejaculates semen into upper end of the vagina and sperms will swim into the uterus

4. Fertilisation

4.1. nucleus of the sperm fuses with the nucleus of the egg

4.2. sperms deposited into the vagina and swim towards the ovum

4.3. Fertilised egg divides repeatedly to form the embryo

4.3.1. Embryo moves into the uterus and implant onto the uterine lining.The woman is now pregnant.

4.3.1.1. Embryo may stack in the oviduct and causes the oviduct to burst which will then causes the death of the mother and the embryo

4.3.1.2. The embryo gets the nutrients from the uterine lining

5. Pregnancy

5.1. After 9 months,the embryo develops into a foetus or unborn baby

5.2. Its legal to marry with a sibling from father side but not mother's

6. Heredity

6.1. The nuclei(plural of nucleus) of the sperm and egg contain genes

6.1.1. Genes are passed on to the new individual during fertilisation

6.1.2. The basic characteristic of a person is determined by the genes

6.1.2.1. Sperm contains father's DNA

6.1.2.2. Ovum contains mother's DNA

6.1.2.3. Zygote contains the mixture of parents' DNA

6.2. The characteristics the offspring inherit from the parents are known as hereditary characteristics

6.2.1. Egs of hereditary characteristics in a family

6.2.1.1. Hair type

6.2.1.2. Skin tone

6.2.1.3. Chin

7. Puberty

7.1. Boys

7.1.1. Starts puberty between 13 to 16 yrs old

7.1.2. Facial hair starts to grow

7.1.3. voice-box enlarges and voice deepens

7.1.4. penis and testes increase in size

7.1.5. production of sperms begins and ejaculation occurs

7.2. Girls

7.2.1. Starts puberty between 11 to 14 yrs old

7.2.2. Breasts and uterus enlarge

7.2.3. Hips broaden

7.2.4. Menstruation begins

7.2.5. Ovums start to release

7.3. Common in Boys and Girls

7.3.1. The production of sex cells marks the beginning of puberty

7.3.2. Hair starts to grow in the armpits

7.3.3. hair starts to grow in the pubic region

7.3.4. Height grows rapidly

7.3.5. Reproductive System becomes active

7.3.6. Start to grow sex cells and sex hormones

8. Menstruation

8.1. Usually last 28 days

9. Menstruation

9.1. Marks the starting of menstual cycle

9.2. To allow the breaking down of uterine lining together with the blood and release the unfertilised ovum

9.3. When it stops,the uterine lining is very thin.Uterine lining then starts to repair and grow in thickness.

10. Repair and growth of the uterine lining

11. Fertile period

11.1. Uterine lining becomes thick

11.2. Ovulation

11.2.1. most likely will start on the 14th day of the menstrual cycle

11.2.2. A mature ovum will be released from either side of the ovary

11.2.2.1. The ovum will survive in the human body for 2 days

11.2.3. Ejaculation during this period is likely to result in pregnancy

12. Uterine lining remains thick

12.1. To supply the embryo with nuteients and oxygen for growth

13. Premarital Sex

13.1. Having sex before marriage.

13.2. Problems that may occur

13.2.1. unwanted pregnancy

13.2.2. Sexually transmitted infections(STI)

13.2.3. No money to support education and result in withdraw from the study

13.2.4. Male not ready to marry the female

14. Abortion

14.1. termination(end) of a pregnancy

14.2. A doctor surgically removes the embryo or foetus

14.3. Usually carried out within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.(beyond 12 weeks can be illegal

14.4. May infect or damage parts of the sexual reproductive system

14.5. May cause the woman to have difficulty to get pregnant again.

14.6. reasons for abortion

14.6.1. Mother may permanently harmed if the pregnancy continues.(The zygote stuck in oviduct)

14.6.2. The child may be born physically or mentally handicapped

14.6.3. Life of the mother and/or foetus is/are in danger

15. Birth Control Methods

15.1. By preventing ovulation

15.1.1. Contraceptive Pills

15.1.1.1. Contain female sex hormones which prevent ovulation

15.1.1.2. Prevent the release of a mature egg

15.1.1.3. Must note the amount

15.1.1.4. May suffer from side effects

15.2. By preventing implantation

15.2.1. Intra-Uterine Device(IUD)

15.2.1.1. Inserted by a doctor

15.2.1.2. Disrupt the function of the uterus by preventing the embryo becoming implanted to the uterine lining.

15.2.1.3. Often used by a newly married couple

15.3. By Surgical(Only permanant method)

15.3.1. Vasectomy(Male)

15.3.1.1. Tying and cutting part of the sperm ducts

15.3.1.2. No ejaculation

15.3.1.3. Unable to make the spouse pregnant

15.3.2. Tubal Ligation(Female)

15.3.2.1. Tying and cutting of both oviducts

15.3.2.2. Prevent sperms from meeting the egg

15.3.2.3. Fertilisation will not occur

15.4. By preventing ferlisation

15.4.1. Condom

15.4.1.1. To cover erect penis before sexual intercourse

15.4.1.2. Impermeable to sperms

15.4.1.3. Impermeable to bacteria and viruses(prevent STI)

15.4.2. Diaphragm

15.4.2.1. Inserted into the vagina and placed over the cervix

15.4.2.2. Impermeable to sperms

15.4.3. Spermicide

15.4.3.1. Kills or block the sperms from entering

15.4.3.2. Inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse

15.4.3.3. Not reliable on its own,ofen used with a condom or diaphragm

15.5. Some temporary methods

15.5.1. Not having sex at all(abstinence)

15.5.2. Withdrawal of the penis just before ejaculation

15.5.3. Avoid having sex during ovulation

15.5.4. Use of chemicals

15.5.5. Use of mechanical devices

16. Sexually transmitted infections(STI)

16.1. Transmitted by

16.1.1. Having sex with an infected partner

16.1.2. Having multiple sex partners

16.1.3. Parents or partner

16.1.4. contact with body fluids

16.1.5. Contaminated blood

16.2. Prevention methods

16.2.1. avoid having multiple sex partners

16.2.2. avoid sharing instruments which may break the skin(razor,toothbrushes)

16.2.3. Use only needles that are free from bacterias and viruses

16.2.4. No abusing drugs or sharing of injection needles

16.2.5. Ensure donated blood is screened

16.3. Different infections

16.3.1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV)

16.3.1.1. Infected by viruses

16.3.1.2. May causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome(AIDS)

16.3.1.2.1. Incurable

16.3.1.2.2. cause death

16.3.1.2.3. Infection stage of HIV

16.3.1.2.4. Immune system is severely damaged

16.3.1.3. Attacks the immune system

16.3.1.4. Makes the person to lose immunity and protection against common infections(eg:fever)

16.3.1.5. Infected person will suffer from severe weight loss,lung infections and brain infections

16.3.2. Syphillis

16.3.2.1. May suffer from blindness and inability to move some parts of the body

16.3.2.2. If left untreated,may lead to heart failure,insanity or even death.

16.3.2.3. Infected by bacteria

16.3.3. Gonorrhoea

16.3.3.1. Infected person may become infertile

16.3.3.2. Causes blind when the bacteria enter the baby's eyes

16.3.3.3. Infected by bacteria