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NGSS by Mind Map: NGSS

1. 6. Construct Explanations and Design Solutions

1.1. Theory: Start, Get an idea, perform an experiment, experiment either proves theory to explain universe or you have to start again; new evidence can either refine and improve a theory or start a revolution where you have to go back to the beginning

1.2. Students need to understand that a hypothesis is a plausible explanation

1.3. The cycle of engineering is to PLAN, DESIGN, CREATE, EVALUATE and this is a cyclic process that happens multiple times

1.4. GOAL OF ELEMENTARY: construct explanations ie. owl pellets or plant growth and design solutions ie. use the environment around you to come up with a problem and find multiple solutions.

2. 4. Analyzing and Interpreting Data

2.1. GOAL is for Students: * learn how to analyze data * learn different ways to organize and graph the data * evaluate the data they found as well as others * use mathematics to explain the data

2.2. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: use a SCIENCE NOTEBOOK: drawing, numbers, words and graphing should all be shown so students practice all these skills from day one.

3. 7. Engage in Argument of Evidence

3.1. Informal Arguments: people talking

3.2. Formal Arguments: support with evidence

3.3. GOAL OF ELEMENTARY: have students construct arguments and support ideas with evidence and be able to critique each other's arguments with no ego, they can guess and argue evidence in a constructive manner.

4. 5. Mathematics and Science

4.1. Math is at the core of Science: it allows students to work with data

4.2. Quantities and Units: Students should be using rulers, projectors, thermometers etc. to collect data and graph from Day One.

4.3. Mathematical Relationships: First students should use words and then transition to the mathematical symbols to explain and show the relationship/thinking. Students should have an understanding of spreadsheets even at a most basic level.

5. 1. Asking Questions and Defining Problems

5.1. Science

5.1.1. study of everything ex. Albert Einstein used questions to figure out how things work

5.1.2. phenomenon: students inquire through questions

5.2. Engineering

5.3. solves problems: students model theories and come up with better solutions, their questions guide the inquiry

5.4. meets human needs: Thomas Edison defined a problem and came up with solutions to solve the problem, ie. the lightbulb

6. 2.Develop and Use Models

6.1. Mental Models belong to an invididual

6.2. Conceptual Models are clear, shared, or are an analogy to show thinking:

6.3. Goal for students: draw, demonstrate and test designs. Models can be: diagrams, replica, analogy, mathematical or a simulation

7. 8 . Obtain, Evaluate and Communicate Information

7.1. Consume Information: students should not just do hands on learning in absence of scientific literature but teachers need to help them read the "jargon" and extract information by finding articles on their level as well as how to extract information from graphs etc.

7.2. Create Information: Science Notebooks help students collect data, communicate understanding and they should share their ideas in writing or in presentation form

7.3. Both informal and formal communication should take place within a science classroom.

8. 3. Planning and Carrying out Investigaions

8.1. Step 1: Question: from investigations comes data, start an experiment with a question

8.2. Step 2: Variables: there are many variables so just pick 2 to refine the questions after you brainstorm lots of ideas

8.3. Step 3: Controls: control all other variables at all times

8.4. IMPORTANT: sample size is important, accuracy and precision are important so the experiment needs to be repeated more than once, a T-chart with the two variables (Independent and Dependent) should be constructed.

8.5. Students need to go through this process to build an understanding about how questions are answered, refined and problems are solved.