Your memory - How it works & how to improve it (Dr Kenneth L. Higbee, PhD - 1997)

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Your memory - How it works & how to improve it (Dr Kenneth L. Higbee, PhD - 1997) by Mind Map: Your memory  -  How it works &  how to improve it  (Dr Kenneth L. Higbee, PhD - 1997)

1. 1. Myths of memory

1.1. 1. Not a thing

1.2. 2. There is not a secret

1.3. 3. Is not easy

1.4. 4. Do not say I have a bad memory

1.5. 5. There is no photographic memory - eidetic memory instead

1.6. 6. Its not matter of age

1.7. 7. Is not a muscle

1.8. 8. All with good memory forget

1.9. 9. Remembering everything cannot clutter your mind - the opposite

1.10. 10. The ten percent myth

1.11. 11. Memory

1.12. OVERALL

1.12.1. Memory is a learned skill than an inner ability

2. 2. Meet your Memory: What is it? p.16

2.1. What are the stages and processes of the memory

2.1.1. Value of mem

2.1.1.1. make

2.1.1.1.1. reasons

2.1.1.1.2. Judgments

2.1.1.1.3. Predictions

2.1.1.1.4. Self-perception

2.1.1.2. Remember facts

2.1.2. Three stages

2.1.2.1. Acquisition or Encoding

2.1.2.1.1. Learn the material in the first place

2.1.2.2. Storage

2.1.2.2.1. Keeping until is needed

2.1.2.3. Retrieval

2.1.2.3.1. Finding and Getting back when it is needed

2.1.2.4. Or the Three Rs

2.1.2.4.1. Recording, Retaining, Retrieving

2.1.3. Better recording results in Better retrieval

2.1.4. There is difference between

2.1.4.1. Availability and

2.1.4.1.1. You know when you know

2.1.4.2. Accessibility

2.1.4.2.1. But not always available

2.2. What is short-term memory

2.2.1. Main characteristics

2.2.1.1. What you perceive at once

2.2.1.2. Rapid forgetting

2.2.1.2.1. less than 30 secs

2.2.1.3. Limited capacity

2.2.1.3.1. 7 items (5-9)

2.2.1.3.2. Rsrch

2.2.1.4. Pdgm

2.2.1.4.1. Think abou when you see a telephone number and then you forget a little after

2.2.1.5. Rehearsing

2.2.1.5.1. Keep info in SM

2.2.1.5.2. Help to transfer in LM

2.2.2. Chuncking

2.2.2.1. Split

2.2.2.1.1. eg

2.2.2.2. Rsrch

2.2.2.2.1. Digits

2.2.2.2.2. Consonants

2.2.2.2.3. Conctete nouns (eg apple)

2.2.2.2.4. 6-word sentence

2.2.3. What is Good SM?

2.2.3.1. Uses

2.2.3.1.1. 1. numerical problems

2.2.3.1.2. 2. maintain current picture of the world

2.2.3.1.3. 3. Goals and plans following at the moment

2.2.3.1.4. 4. Track conversations

2.3. Wha tis long-term memory

2.3.1. What we call ''Memory''

2.3.2. Types of Mem

2.3.2.1. 1. Procedural

2.3.2.1.1. How we do things eg playing a guitar, using iphone, solving equations, riding a bicycle

2.3.2.2. 2. Semantic

2.3.2.2.1. Maths and

2.3.2.2.2. Word meanings

2.3.2.3. 3. Episodic (episodes of life)

2.3.2.3.1. Events and self in these events

2.3.3. Differences between SM and LM

2.3.3.1. nerves changes that take place in brain

2.3.3.2. SM is an active, ongoing process that easily disrupted by other activities; LM not

2.3.3.3. SM has limited capacity; LM not

2.3.3.4. Retrieval in SM is automatic; LM not

2.3.3.5. Drugs and diseases affect SM without affect the LM and vice versa

2.3.4. Thing about Hypnosis

2.3.5. Eg

2.3.5.1. In surgery touching parts of brain with an electric probe

2.3.5.1.1. The individuals remember forgotten events or scenes that they did not know that they had lived

2.3.5.1.2. When the probe is removed the experience stops

2.3.5.2. Pdgm

2.3.5.2.1. K.F patient

2.3.5.2.2. H.M

2.3.6. Relationship of LM and SM

2.3.6.1. Information

2.3.6.1.1. SM

2.4. What are the measures of memory

2.4.1. Three

2.4.1.1. 1. Recall

2.4.1.1.1. Types

2.4.1.2. 2. Recognition

2.4.1.2.1. to know again

2.4.1.2.2. Name remembering is a recall (recognition) task

2.4.1.2.3. Rsrch

2.4.1.3. 3. Relearning

2.4.1.3.1. Faster, the second time

2.4.1.3.2. Language pdgm (after many years)

2.4.2. Not accurate to say that we do not remember when we cannot recall

2.4.2.1. Info is available but not accessible

2.4.2.1.1. Maybe

2.4.3. Nonsense syllables is the objective way of measuring memory

2.4.3.1. eg CEJ, ZUL, ZIB

2.4.3.1.1. to reduce familiarity effect

2.5. What is the TIP-OF-THE-TONGUE phenomemon

2.5.1. When you know that you know something but you cannot remember it - close to recall

2.5.2. Rsrch

2.5.2.1. Eldery same as adults in performance

2.5.3. Implications of the T-o-t-T-Ph

2.5.3.1. 1. Memory is matter of degree

2.5.3.1.1. We do not remember something either completely or not at all

2.5.3.2. 2. Memory is generative, not duplicative (see photographic mem later. My Comnt)

2.5.3.2.1. Is not an automatic picture-taking process

2.5.3.2.2. Is a process of reconstruction (this is really important! My Comnt)

2.5.3.3. 3. Words stored in more than one way

2.5.3.3.1. 1. auditory

2.5.3.3.2. 2. visual

2.5.3.3.3. 3. meaning

2.5.3.4. Difference between (This is very important! My Comnt)

2.5.3.4.1. Availability and

2.5.3.4.2. Accessibility

3. 6. Strategies for learning p.74

3.1. 1. Reduce interference

3.1.1. overlearn to learn

3.1.2. meaningful

3.1.3. after reading - between learning and recall

3.1.3.1. How much you do

3.1.3.1.1. Sleep after learning

3.1.3.2. What you do

3.1.3.2.1. do other things

3.1.3.2.2. no similar subjects

3.1.4. contexts

3.1.4.1. two subjects two rooms to study

3.1.4.1.1. change class

3.1.5. time between learning sessions

3.1.5.1. intermittently

3.1.5.2. short breaks, 2-5 min

3.2. 2. Space it out - (Do not overdo it)

3.2.1. Psychologists

3.2.1.1. Massed learning

3.2.1.1.1. cramming=large amount in a short of time

3.2.1.1.2. not good

3.2.1.1.3. better when

3.2.1.2. Distributed learning

3.2.1.2.1. or spaced learning

3.2.1.2.2. better in delayed examination

3.2.2. Space between sessions

3.2.2.1. plan

3.2.2.1.1. deciade the length of studying

3.2.2.2. better in repetition

3.2.2.3. concentrate better

3.2.2.4. consolidate info during break

3.2.2.4.1. 2 min break every 21 min teaching sessions

3.2.2.5. different context and different mood

3.2.2.5.1. more effective reading

3.2.2.5.2. better recall when mood during reading is the same with mood during test session

3.3. 3. Break it up - in more pieces of work

3.3.1. PART METHOD - learn first part before move to second

3.3.1.1. immediate feedback

3.3.1.2. feedback sustain interest

3.3.1.3. large amount of material

3.3.2. WHOLE METHOD - beginning to end

3.3.2.1. overall picture

3.3.2.2. efficient with practice

3.3.2.2.1. lead toword mastery

3.3.2.3. realize things before read them later on

3.3.3. Combination

3.3.3.1. Whole Part Method

3.3.3.1.1. the whole thing one or twice

3.3.3.1.2. then break it into parts

3.3.3.1.3. finally review

3.3.3.1.4. better for difficult material

3.3.3.2. Progressive Part Method

3.3.3.2.1. learn first part

3.3.3.2.2. learn second part

3.3.3.2.3. then the 2 parts together

3.3.3.2.4. then the 3 part

3.3.3.2.5. then the 3 parts together

3.3.3.2.6. ...and so on....

3.3.3.2.7. Connect parts together

3.4. 4. Recite it - Repeat without looking

3.4.1. How to do it

3.4.1.1. Read the headings and try to tell yourself what is about

3.4.1.2. try....to recall

3.4.1.3. test effect

3.4.1.3.1. spent more time to recite than to read

3.4.2. Why you must do it

3.4.2.1. combine many strategies simultaneously

3.4.2.2. forces active learning

3.4.2.3. gives you feedback

3.4.2.4. involves repetition

3.4.2.5. forces to pay attention on what you are doing

3.4.2.6. practise as what you do during exams

3.4.2.7. rehearsing retrieval - testing yourself

3.4.2.8. transfer knowledge to long-term memory

3.4.2.9. Indepedent whether

3.4.2.9.1. you are bright or dull

3.4.2.9.2. long or short materials

3.4.2.9.3. the material is meaningful

3.5. 5. Use a Study System

3.5.1. An effective study method should

3.5.1.1. 1. Based on strategies

3.5.1.2. 2. Identify and Understand the important parts of the material

3.5.1.3. 3. Help you remember the important parts

3.5.1.4. 4. Be more efficient than merely reading the material over and over again

3.5.1.5. 5. Be easy to learn

3.5.2. SQ3R

3.5.2.1. 1. Survey

3.5.2.1.1. Overview for a few minutes

3.5.2.2. 2. Question

3.5.2.2.1. What is in it for me?

3.5.2.3. 3. Read

3.5.2.3.1. 3rd step, not the 1st

3.5.2.3.2. Finish reading then uderline (carefully)

3.5.2.4. 4. Recite

3.5.2.4.1. Ask yourself

3.5.2.4.2. Spend about half of your time

3.5.2.5. 5. Review

3.5.2.5.1. A very basic learning strategy

3.5.2.5.2. After reading

3.5.2.5.3. Never finish without review!

3.5.2.5.4. Increase intervals between review

3.6. 6. How well do the Principles and Strategies work

3.6.1. Principles

3.6.1.1. associate

3.6.1.2. overlearn

3.6.2. Strategies

3.6.2.1. Review

3.6.2.2. recite

3.6.3. Rules to remember (principles and strategies)

3.6.3.1. 1. Learn by wholes (Whole Learning, SQ3R)

3.6.3.2. 2. Use active self-testing (Recitation)

3.6.3.3. 3. Use rhythm and grouping (Meaningfulness, Organization)

3.6.3.4. 4. Attention to meaning and advantages of picturing (Meaningfulness, Visualization)

3.6.3.5. 5. Mental alertness and concentration (Attention)

3.6.3.6. 6. Use of secondary associations (Association)

3.6.3.7. 7. Confidence in ability to memorize (Relaxation, Overlearning)

4. The most prominent pieces

4.1. Forgettig due to interference

4.2. Feedback sustain interest

5. 13. Using Mnemonics: Remembering People's Names and Faces p.188

5.1. How Do We Remember Names and Faces

5.1.1. In general

5.1.1.1. 1. We see tha face and hear the name

5.1.1.1.1. We remember better what we see than what we hear

5.1.1.2. 2. Faces are treated differently from other pictures

5.1.1.2.1. (Ask me why, My Comnt)

5.1.1.3. 3. Face is recognition task, Name is a recall task

5.1.1.3.1. Guess who wins!!

5.1.2. Recongizing Faces

5.1.3. Recognition Vs Recall

5.1.3.1. Harder to recall faces

5.1.3.1.1. No words to describe

5.1.3.1.2. less frequently task

5.1.4. Other Factors Affecting Name Memory

5.1.4.1. Names tend to be harder than other words

5.1.4.2. One study found that names and surnames are not recalled differently

5.1.4.3. Names are not similar to words

5.2. A System for Remembering Names and Faces

5.2.1. Step 1: Get the Name

5.2.1.1. Pay attention

5.2.1.2. Ask to repeat his name if necessairy

5.2.2. Step 2: Make the Name Meaningful

5.2.2.1. Give a meaning

5.2.2.1.1. i.e. Lefteris= Free man

5.2.3. Step 3: Focus on the Face

5.2.3.1. i.e his face looks like a hen who found her freedom from the box which she was locked

5.2.4. Step 4: Associate the Face with the Name

5.2.5. Step 5: Review the Association

5.2.5.1. three times at least in the following minutes

6. 14. Using Mnemonics: Absentmindedness and Education

6.1. Absentmindedness

6.1.1. no remedy

6.1.2. The price we pay for being able to carry out so many complex activities with only a small investment of conscious attention

6.2. Prospective Remembering

6.2.1. Remember to remember in the future

6.2.2. External Reminders

6.3. Retrospective Remembering

6.3.1. Concerns memory for past events, things we have learned in the past

6.4. Mnemonics in Education

6.4.1. 1. Adaptable

6.4.2. 2. Joyful

6.4.3. 3. TIme efficient

6.4.4. 4. Versatile

6.5. Memory in Education

6.5.1. Education is

6.5.1.1. 1. Knowledge acquisition

6.5.1.2. 2. Problem solving

6.5.1.3. 3. Reasoning

6.5.2. But to go there you need to learn and remember other things

6.5.2.1. Think of how much time later you had understood but before you had to learn it (remember it)

6.5.2.1.1. So, Ka, Ps and R. comes later

6.5.2.1.2. Before this, we need to remember things

6.5.2.1.3. Mnemonics are essential to input in education

6.5.2.1.4. There is bias...

7. 12. Mental Filing: Phonetic Mnemonic (Major Memory System - My Comnt)

7.1. What is the Phonetic System?

7.1.1. Origin

7.1.1.1. Winckelman

7.1.1.1.1. 1648

7.1.1.2. Modifications later

7.1.1.3. 1980 final version by Loisette and Williams James

7.1.2. Description

7.1.2.1. Single click

7.1.3. How to use it

7.1.3.1. Memorize the list of 100 words

7.2. How Can you Use the Phonetic System?

7.2.1. A Mental Filing System

7.2.1.1. i.e.

7.2.1.1.1. 1-10 for Sunday

7.2.1.1.2. 11-20 Monday

7.2.1.1.3. and so forth

7.2.1.1.4. Obligations

7.2.1.1.5. 61-70 for chlidren and wife

7.2.1.2. For everything

7.2.2. Remembering Numbers

7.2.2.1. Use the consonant system to produce your own number-words

7.2.3. Other Uses

7.2.3.1. Birthdays

8. 11. Mental Filing systems: Peg Mnemonic p.157

8.1. What is the Peg System?

8.1.1. Series of prememorized concrete nouns

8.1.2. Origin

8.1.2.1. Mid-1600s

8.1.2.1.1. Henry Herdson

8.1.3. How to use it

8.1.3.1. As vividly as possible

8.1.3.2. 1-gun 2-shoe 3-tree 4-door 5-hive

8.1.3.3. 6-Bricks 7-heaven 8-gate 9-wine 10-hen

8.1.4. Other Pegs

8.1.4.1. Shape

8.1.4.1.1. 1 reminds candle 2 reminds swan 3 reminds McDonalds in rotation and so forth

8.1.4.2. Rhyme

8.1.4.2.1. 11-20

8.1.5. Alphabet Pegs

8.1.5.1. A hay B bee C sea D deed E eve and so forth

8.1.5.1.1. Alphabet letters rhyme with a concrete word

8.1.5.2. A ape B boy C cat D dog

8.1.5.2.1. Words begin with each letter of the alphabet but do not rhyme

8.1.6. Peg and Loci Compared

8.1.6.1. previously memorized concrete items

8.1.6.2. Peg=objects Loci=Locations

8.1.6.3. Both change the free-recall task to aided recall via a paired-associate task

8.1.6.4. Advantages over free recall

8.1.6.4.1. 1. Definite and consistent learning

8.1.6.4.2. 2. Definite pigeonholes

8.1.6.4.3. 3. Systematic retrieval plan

8.2. How Can you Use the Peg System

8.2.1. Remembering Ideas

8.2.1.1. i. e. the ten commanders

8.2.2. Remembering Numbers

8.2.3. Using the Same Pegwords Over and Over

8.2.4. Other Uses

8.2.4.1. School

8.2.4.2. Studies

8.2.4.3. everyday life

9. Abbreviations

9.1. Short-term memory

9.1.1. SM

9.2. Long-term memory

9.2.1. LM

9.3. Memory

9.3.1. Mem

9.4. Paradigm

9.4.1. Pdgm

9.5. Research

9.5.1. Rsrch

9.6. Example

9.6.1. eg

9.7. Information

9.7.1. Info

9.8. My comment

9.8.1. My Comnt

10. 3. Meet your Memory: How does it work? p.32

10.1. How and why we forget?

10.1.1. Good to forgetting

10.1.2. We fail at the 3 Rs

10.1.2.1. Recording

10.1.2.2. Retention

10.1.2.3. Retrieval

10.1.3. Five explanations

10.1.3.1. Decay

10.1.3.1.1. disuse

10.1.3.2. Repression

10.1.3.2.1. Freud

10.1.3.2.2. Intentionally forgetting

10.1.3.3. Distortion

10.1.3.3.1. Remember the way we want

10.1.3.4. Interference

10.1.3.4.1. by other learning

10.1.3.4.2. Not so much the amount we learn as it is what we learn that determines that forgetting by interference

10.1.3.4.3. Proactive inhibition

10.1.3.4.4. Retroactive inhibition

10.1.3.5. Cue dependency

10.1.3.5.1. Find the right cue to retrieve

10.1.4. Your memory Attic

10.1.4.1. The attic pdgm

10.1.4.2. Rsrch

10.1.4.2.1. Forgetting is mostly by the interference

10.2. How fast we forget?

10.2.1. Dependent on the time

10.2.2. We remember the gist or the main idea

10.2.2.1. not thoroughly

10.2.3. It depends on how well (effectively) we learn rather than how fast

10.2.3.1. evidence based

10.2.4. More meaningful is the material the faster we learn

10.3. How we remember pictures VS words?

10.3.1. Imagery process

10.3.1.1. think of a chair

10.3.1.2. Better for

10.3.1.2.1. concrete events

10.3.1.2.2. objects

10.3.1.2.3. words

10.3.1.3. Concrete words produce mental images than abstract nouns

10.3.1.4. visual system

10.3.1.5. Right half of the brain

10.3.1.6. unlimited mental pictures

10.3.1.7. better in recognition

10.3.1.7.1. 600 paired words chaper 2

10.3.1.8. One picture is worth 1000 words

10.3.1.9. Images are inherently more memorable

10.3.1.10. Both verbal and mental images

10.3.1.10.1. two ways of storage

10.3.1.10.2. two notes (in mind) than one

10.3.2. Verbal process

10.3.2.1. think of the word chair

10.3.2.2. Better for

10.3.2.2.1. abstract verbal information

10.3.2.3. verbal system

10.3.2.4. Left half of the brain

10.3.2.5. faster recall

10.4. How do exceptional memories work?

10.4.1. Mem is a learned ability than an innate skill

10.4.2. Photographic memory is a powerful application of learned memory techniques

10.4.3. Eidetic memory

10.4.3.1. Duplicate the info

10.4.3.2. 5-10% of children possess eidetic mem

10.4.3.2.1. Much less in adolescents

10.4.3.3. Similar to photographic but different

10.4.3.4. Eidetic means

10.4.3.4.1. ''Identical'' or

10.4.3.4.2. ''Duplicative

10.4.3.5. a more powerful version of visual capacity that we all possess

10.4.4. Differences with Photographic memory

10.4.4.1. The images last a few seconds or a few minutes

10.4.4.2. Has to do with the subjective state of the viewer

10.4.4.2.1. Not an objective reproduction like a camera

10.4.4.3. The person does not make a split-second snapshot but requires several seconds to scan the scene

10.4.4.4. Images are not brought back once they have gone

10.4.4.4.1. not recorded in LM

10.4.5. Impressive examples

10.4.5.1. 1. 23 years old woman

10.4.5.1.1. She could retain a pattern of 10.000 black and white squares in her mind for three months

10.4.5.2. 2. Alexandr Luria

10.4.5.2.1. referred as ''S''

10.4.6. Other examples

10.4.6.1. 1. A woman could memorize a 16x16 matrx with 256 random digits

10.4.6.2. 2. A man (V.P.) could memorize a 6x8 matrix of 48 digits and recalled them a week later

10.4.6.3. 3. A man could memorize a 100-digit number in 12 min if the digits were read to him

10.4.6.3.1. He became confused if he dad to read them himself

10.4.6.4. 4. Another could memorize two and a half pages of materials after reading it only once

10.4.6.5. 5. All these performances have been attributed by the researchers and by the performers themselves, to the use of learned mnemonics, interest and practice more than to innate abilities

10.4.7. Two kinds of impressive memory

10.4.7.1. 1. Memorists

10.4.7.1.1. possess some inborn abilities

10.4.7.2. 2. Mnemonists

10.4.7.2.1. learned mnemonics skills

10.4.8. Idiot savants

10.4.8.1. People with impressive mental abilities (such as photographic memory or the ability to do complex mathematical calculations) but lack general intelligence

10.4.8.1.1. In other words they are wise idiots

10.4.9. The blessing that become a burden

10.4.9.1. ''S'' reported that when he tried to read, every word brought forth an image

10.4.9.1.1. these images cluttered his mind and prevented him from understanding what he was reading

10.4.9.2. He also found hard to erase images that were no longer useful

10.5. How well sleep learning work?

10.5.1. Dozens of studies

10.5.2. What sleep means?

10.5.3. How it might work?

10.5.3.1. 1. The material must be presented during light sleep

10.5.3.2. 2. No complex (reasoning or undestanding) materials

10.5.3.2.1. only materials such as

10.5.3.3. 3. Even both conditions are met, sleep learning is not sufficient by itslelf

10.5.3.3.1. but only as an aid to daytime studies

10.5.4. Subliminal learning

10.5.4.1. Means learning below the conscious awareness

10.5.4.2. messages that are too fast or too weak for us to be aware of them

10.5.4.3. My Cmnt

10.5.4.3.1. The author concludes that we are not likely to learn and remember materials if you are not consciously aware that it is being presented to you

10.5.4.3.2. But, Rsrch suggests that indeed we are able to learn information without our full awareness

11. 4. How to Remember Almost Anything: Basic Principles p.46

11.1. 1. Meaningfulness (Familiar, Meaning for us)

11.1.1. The alternative is learning by rote

11.1.1.1. By Repeating

11.1.2. Rsrch

11.1.2.1. 1. nonsense syllables

11.1.2.1.1. took about 90 min to memorize

11.1.2.2. 2. prose

11.1.2.2.1. took less than 30 min

11.1.2.3. 3. poetry

11.1.2.3.1. took 10 min

11.1.3. Familiarity (My Comnt: overlearning/relearning)

11.1.3.1. Learning builds on learning

11.1.3.2. Expose to something already known

11.1.3.3. Rsrch suggests the importance of familiarity in remembering

11.1.3.3.1. Elderly outperform to adults

11.1.4. Rhymes

11.1.4.1. Rsrch suggests that rhyme is effective cue to recall

11.1.5. Patterns

11.1.5.1. Find pattern or relationships

11.1.5.1.1. helps make more meaningful

11.1.5.2. eg 375=3x(25)==>75

11.2. 2. Organazation (Get it all together)

11.2.1. eg words alphabetically

11.2.2. The more consciously organize the material at the time you are first learning it, the easier it is to retrieve

11.2.2.1. Easier to find

11.2.2.1.1. eg

11.2.2.2. Recall better

11.2.3. Chunking is kind of organazation

11.2.4. Rsrch

11.2.4.1. materials into categories helps learning infrormation better

11.2.5. The Serial Position Effect

11.2.5.1. the order

11.2.5.2. Info in the beginnings and in the end are remembered more

11.2.5.3. Immediate recall after learning, the last few items are remembered more

11.2.5.4. When there is some delay after learning (in recall) the first few items tend to remembered more than the last few

11.2.5.5. ADVISE

11.2.5.5.1. First

11.2.5.5.2. Second

11.3. 3. Association (Link with others - What reminds me)

11.3.1. Analogies, metaphors, examples, comparing, contrasting

11.3.2. Link with something already known, familiar

11.3.3. eg

11.3.3.1. Difference between the motel and the hotel

11.3.3.1.1. Motel

11.3.3.1.2. Hotel

11.3.3.2. The number of 1206

11.3.3.2.1. convert as

11.3.4. Unconscious associations

11.3.4.1. You meet a person and he looks familiar

11.3.4.1.1. The reason is that you associate with somebody that you already know

11.3.5. Make the material more

11.3.5.1. Meaningful

11.3.5.1.1. Meaningful means the concept with more Associations (Very important! My Comnt)

11.3.5.2. Familiar

11.3.6. Rsrch

11.3.6.1. 1. Mind works as a network where it looks for associations, similar concepts, multiple associations

11.3.6.1.1. Mind map (My Comnt)

11.3.6.2. 2. Remember more, when you relate information to yourself and your life

11.3.6.3. 3. Remembering and undesrtanding easier new information when teachers help students to relate info to what they already know

11.3.6.3.1. e.g. Today we will learn about the mind function. Think of how your body works, with interconnections (My Comnt)

11.3.7. Think Around it (technique)

11.3.7.1. This is an Old concept described by James Mill an English philosopher (roughly 160 years ago)

11.3.7.2. Anything you can you recall

11.3.7.3. Free mem technique

11.3.7.3.1. e.g. When trying to remember your old teacher's name try to remember anything around him

11.3.7.4. Utility in witnesses

11.3.7.4.1. Irrelevant or incomplete info could help to remember more

11.4. 4. Visualization ( I can see it all now)

11.4.1. Imagine it

11.4.1.1. Make learning effective

11.4.1.2. Is fun

11.4.2. Take a mental ride at your home

11.4.3. What is known

11.4.3.1. 1. Concrete words and sentences are learned faster and remembered better than abstract words

11.4.3.2. 2. In Paired-associate word pairs, people report spontaneous use of mental pictures and learn these pairs more quicly

11.4.3.3. 3. Instructing people to use mental pictures relating 2 words of a pair, help learning pronouns better

11.4.3.4. 4. Using vivid visual imagery perform better in recall tests than those with poor visual imagery

11.4.4. Unlimited capacity in nouns

11.5. 5. Attention

11.5.1. Stay in present

11.5.2. We forget because we never actually got in the first place

11.5.2.1. We never consciously pay attention to it

11.5.2.1.1. eg

11.5.3. Bad memories

11.5.3.1. Not because we forget but because we do not learn it at all

11.5.3.1.1. Pay more attention

11.5.4. We can pay attention to one thing at a time

11.5.5. Rsrch

11.5.5.1. Attention is highly correlated with school achievements than the amount of time spent on the task

11.5.6. Absentmindedness

11.5.6.1. Due to not pay attention

11.5.6.1.1. Where is my car?

11.5.6.1.2. Where is my Keys?

11.5.7. My Comnt

11.5.7.1. Attention is the fundamental principle during learning. It is associated with Familiarity and Association and Interest. First, Pay Attention and thereafter use the rest techniques

12. 5. How to Remember Almost Anything Else: More Basic Principles p.62

12.1. 1. Repetition (again and again)

12.1.1. Combine with other principles

12.1.1.1. not just repeating

12.1.2. Overlearning

12.1.2.1. Master the topic

12.1.3. Gives confidence

12.1.4. Materials become more familiar

12.1.4.1. Discussed before

12.2. 2. Relaxation (stay calm - release)

12.2.1. Joke: ''Friends, just before I stood up to speak to you, only God and I knew what I was going to say; now, only God knows''

12.2.2. Stress hinder mem and learning

12.2.3. Little stress is useful

12.2.4. Test anxiety

12.2.4.1. Anxiety associated with any performance is being evaluated

12.2.5. Why?

12.2.5.1. Not pay adequately attention causes problems in

12.2.5.1.1. 1. Encoding

12.2.5.1.2. 2. Organizing

12.2.5.1.3. 3. Retrieving

12.2.6. What to do?

12.2.6.1. 2 approaches

12.2.6.1.1. 1. use relaxation techniques

12.2.6.1.2. 2. better prepared, less anxious

12.2.6.2. Rsrch (Reduce anxiety)

12.2.6.2.1. 1. Study skills

12.2.6.2.2. 2. Test-taking strategies

12.2.7. Stress causes Mental Blocks

12.2.7.1. You know it but something else keeps intruding you

12.3. 3. Context (Where??)

12.3.1. Recall better in same place than different places

12.3.2. Rsrch

12.3.2.1. 1. Better recall when associate the place with the materials

12.3.2.2. 2. Each topic in different room produce better recall than in the same room

12.3.2.2.1. Why? More flexibility in retrieval

12.3.2.3. 3. Studying and take the test in the same room found to aid recall

12.3.3. What to do!

12.3.3.1. 1. Study in the place you will take the test

12.3.3.2. 2. Similar setting such as another class or library

12.3.3.3. 3. Use the context effect tech

12.3.3.3.1. Try to recall the studying conditions

12.3.3.4. 4. Immunize

12.3.3.4.1. Study in different places

12.3.3.4.2. Rsrch

12.3.3.5. Use a place only for study to associate the study with the place

12.3.4. Psychological context

12.3.4.1. Remember better if you are in the same emo state/mood (or drug state)

12.3.4.1.1. 1. Alcohol

12.3.4.1.2. 2. Caffeine

12.3.4.1.3. 3. Nicotine

12.4. 4. Interest

12.4.1. Influences attention

12.4.2. Elderly talk more about past. The reason that they are interested in new things - they do not care

12.4.3. Motivate yourself

12.4.3.1. Give a purpose

12.4.3.2. How?

12.4.3.2.1. 1. Say: From now I am going to be interested in that

12.4.3.2.2. 2. Try to relate the materials with self

12.4.3.2.3. 3. It matters you!!

12.4.3.2.4. 4. External or Artificial reward

12.5. 5. Feedback (How are you going?)

12.5.1. Know your progress

12.5.2. Make adjustments and Improvements

12.5.3. Rsrch

12.5.3.1. 1. Half received feedback and other half did not

12.5.3.1.1. Those who received feedback remembered more materials a week later

12.5.3.2. 2. Corrective feedback make students to learn more efficiently

12.5.4. Assess how well you know

12.5.4.1. Test effect

12.5.4.2. With a friend

13. 7. Working Miracles with Your Memory: An introduction to Mnemonics p.93

13.1. 1. What are Mnemonics

13.1.1. Derived from Mnemosyne

13.1.1.1. Ancient Greek Godness

13.1.2. Loci system 500 B.C.

13.1.2.1. By Greek orators to remember speeches

13.1.3. Mem aids

13.1.3.1. Association

13.1.3.2. Rhymes

13.1.3.3. Location

13.1.3.4. Imagination

13.1.4. Memorizing the calendar

13.1.4.1. READY???? Follow me (My Comnt)

13.1.4.2. eg 1988

13.1.4.2.1. read this number

13.1.4.2.2. Now

13.1.4.2.3. Let's go

13.2. 2. First Letters and Keywords

13.2.1. First-letter Mnemonics

13.2.1.1. Use

13.2.1.1.1. Acronyms

13.2.1.1.2. Acrostics

13.2.1.1.3. 4 At least ways that A&A aid memory

13.3. 3. Basic Principles of Mnemonics

13.3.1. Meaningfulness

13.3.1.1. not for material tha already has meaning

13.3.2. Organization

13.3.2.1. Record and Retrieve

13.3.3. Association

13.3.4. Visualization

13.3.5. Attention

13.3.5.1. Concentrate in order to form pictures and associate them

13.3.5.2. Intentional thinking (My Comnt)

13.4. 4. How to Make Effective Visual Associations

13.4.1. Interaction

13.4.2. Vividness

13.4.2.1. 1. Exaggeration

13.4.2.2. 2. Motion

13.4.2.3. 3. Substitution

13.4.3. Bizarreness

13.5. 5. More on Effective Mnemonics

13.5.1. How Can you Use the Images for Abstract Material?

13.5.1.1. Happiness

13.5.1.1.1. picture a smile face

13.5.1.2. Liberty

13.5.1.2.1. picture a Liberty bell

13.5.1.3. Concretize abstract materials for effective visual images

13.5.2. Should you Make up Your Own Mnemonics?

13.5.2.1. Yes

13.5.3. Generation effect

13.5.3.1. Better form your own mnemonics

13.5.3.1.1. Why?

14. 8. The Legitimacy of Mnemonics: Limitations and Pseudo-Limitations p.113

14.1. Some Limitations of Mnemonics

14.1.1. 1. Time

14.1.2. 2. Abstract Material

14.1.3. 3. Learning VS Retention

14.1.4. 4. Imagery Ability

14.1.5. 5. Verbatim Memory

14.1.6. 6. Interference

14.1.7. 7. Maintenance and Trasfer

14.2. Some Pseudo-Limitations of Mnemonics

14.2.1. Mnemonics

14.2.1.1. 1. are not Practical

14.2.1.2. 2. do not aid Understanding

14.2.1.3. 3. Give you more to Remember

14.2.1.4. 4. are Crutches

14.2.1.5. 5. are Tricks

15. 9, Mental Filing Systems: Link and Story Mnemonics p.131

15.1. Your Mental filing System

15.1.1. 3 Ways that a Mneminic System can help you

15.1.1.1. 1. Gives a plce to start, a way to locate the first item

15.1.1.2. 2. Gives way of proceeding systematically from one item to next (or info)

15.1.1.3. 3. You know when your recalled is Finished

15.2. What is the Link System

15.2.1. Called also Chain System

15.2.2. Elementary of the Mnemonic systems

15.2.3. When you have a list of 10 words, then visualize and mentatally associate the 1 with the 2 word, then the 2 with the 3 and so forth

15.2.4. Instructions

15.2.4.1. 1. See each association in your mind

15.2.4.2. 2. Do not go back to and review the words

15.2.4.3. 3. Trust your mem that you will be able to recall when you it is needed

15.2.4.4. 4. When someone (or a book) gives you a list of things to remember, Link the first word with the person or the book

15.3. What is the Story System

15.3.1. Similar to Link System but now you have to produce a story in order to link the word list

15.3.2. Differences between the 2 Systems

15.3.2.1. 1. Independence Vs Sequence

15.3.2.2. 2. Story System requires more +Time

15.3.2.3. 3. Longer lists are harder to produce a story (Congitive Load, My Cmnt)

15.3.2.4. 4. Link System aids you to recall Forward AND Backward. With the Story System is more demanding to go Backwards.

15.4. How Can you Use the Link and Story System

15.4.1. Lists

15.4.1.1. Shopping list

15.4.1.2. Names of Important Persons

15.4.2. Speeches or Reports

15.4.3. Other uses

15.4.3.1. University

15.4.3.2. Foreign languages

16. 10. Mental Filing Systems: Loci Method p.144

16.1. What is the Loci System

16.1.1. Origin

16.1.1.1. 500 BC

16.1.1.2. Simonides

16.1.1.2.1. Collapse

16.1.1.2.2. Identified bodies

16.1.1.3. Loci is the plural of locus= Location, place

16.1.1.3.1. ''Typical System''

16.1.2. How to use it

16.1.2.1. Two Steps

16.1.2.1.1. 1. Memorize a series of mental images of familar locations

16.1.2.1.2. 2. Association each item to remembered with a the concrete location

16.1.3. Oher features

16.1.3.1. How and Why it works

16.1.3.1.1. 1. combines the mnemonic principles

16.1.3.1.2. 2. Step by step storage

16.1.3.1.3. 3. Time of retireval for abstract and concrete nouns is almost the same

16.1.3.1.4. 4. Strong association is required

16.1.3.1.5. 5. In one point you can associate more than one item. Interaction between the items

16.1.4. Loci system works the same as your mind functions

16.1.4.1. Images and Locations

16.2. How Well Does the Loci System Work?

16.2.1. Rsrch

16.2.1.1. 1. People can remember the locations of things they have seen or heard as they remember the things themselves

16.2.1.2. 2. Mem for location aids to remember other characteristics

16.2.1.2.1. i.e Remember where you have seen the person you can recall the person's name

16.2.1.3. 3. Loci System significantly improves the memory for lists of items

16.2.2. Mem for locations

16.2.2.1. Easy to remeber locations and places

16.2.3. Using locations to Aid Mem

16.2.3.1. Use the location to remember other info

16.2.3.2. Context effect

16.2.3.3. Note taking

16.2.3.3.1. You can recall where is the info on the paper

16.2.3.4. Naming the capitals on a map, then recall better later

16.2.4. Effectiveness of Loci System

16.2.4.1. Recall performance is equivalent to having the loci physically present

16.2.4.2. Also for elderly, blind and brain-damaged

16.3. How Can you Use the Loci System?

16.3.1. A Mental Filing System

16.3.1.1. Instead of having a piece of paper to note things to be remebered later

16.3.2. Using the same over and over again

16.3.2.1. Not such interference

16.3.2.2. To reduce interference do two things

16.3.2.2.1. Multiple sets of locations

16.3.2.2.2. Progressive elaboration

16.3.3. Other uses

16.3.3.1. In each scene n the loci system link more than one items as the link method does

16.3.3.2. i.e. At your school route you can associate with your done things in the day with the recycle Bin, at your aunt's house the list for supermarket. Later, at your friend's house the list for school materials.