My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education Chapter 2

1.1. Perspective

1.1.1. Conservative Perspective

1.1.1.1. Nineteenth-century social Darwinist thought

1.1.1.2. Primary emphasis on the individual

1.1.1.3. the Reagan Philosophy

1.2. Vision

1.2.1. Traditional

1.2.1.1. Schools are viewed as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society

1.2.1.2. Schools can pass on the best of what was and what is

1.2.1.3. Traditional Vision and Conservative Perspective go hand in hand

2. History of Education Chapter 3

2.1. The Age of Reform

2.1.1. The Rise of the Common School

2.1.1.1. Historians point to the period from 1820 to 1860 in the United States as one in which enormous changes took place with unprecedented speed.

2.1.1.2. By 1820, it had become evident to those interested in education that the schools that had been established by the pre-war generation were not functioning effectively.

2.1.1.3. The struggle for free public education was led by Horace Mann of Massachusetts. (Father of Education

2.1.1.4. Mann believed that schools can change the social order and that education can foster social mobility

2.1.1.5. The fist state 'normal school', or teacher training school, was established in 1839

2.2. Historical Interpretation

2.2.1. Conservative Perspective

2.2.1.1. Diane Ravitch argued that the preoccupation with using education to solve social problems has not solved these problems and, simultaneously, has led to the erosion of educational excellence.

3. Sociology of Education Chapter 4

3.1. Relationship Between School & Society

3.1.1. Conflict Theories

3.1.1.1. From their point of view, schools are similar to social battlefields; students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators, and so on. I think that this is exactly how schools are right now

3.1.1.2. Willard Waller portrayed schools as autocracies in a state of "perilous equilibrium". Without continuous vigilance, schools would erupt into anarchy because students are essentially forced to go to school against their will.

3.1.1.3. Cultural reproduction theorists, such as Bourdieu and Passerine, examined how cultural capital and social capital are passed on by families and schools.

3.1.1.3.1. Cultural Capital- knowledge and experiences related to art, music, and literature.

3.1.1.3.2. Social Capital- social networks and connections

3.1.1.4. Max Weber examined status cultures as well as class position as an important sociological concept, because it alerts one to the fact that people identify their group by what they consume and with whom they socialize.

3.1.2. Functional Theories

3.1.2.1. Functional sociologists begin with a picture of society that stresses the interdependence of the social system.

3.1.2.2. Functionalists view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

3.1.2.3. Emily Durkheim believed that moral values were the foundation of society.

3.1.3. Interactional Theories

3.1.3.1. Interactional theories about the relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives.

3.1.3.2. The process by which students are labeled gifted or learning disabled are - from an interactional point of view - important to analyze, because such processes carry with them many implicit assumptions about learning and children.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Knowledge & Attitudes

3.2.1.1. It is found that the higher the social class background of the student, the higher his or her achievement level

3.2.1.2. Comparing public and private schools, also indicates that in schools where students are compelled to take academic subjects and where there is consistent discipline, student achievement levels go up

3.2.1.3. Other research has indicated that the more education individuals receive, the more likely they are to read newspapers, books and magazine, and to take part in politics and public affairs

3.2.1.4. Education is also related to individuals' sense of well-being and self-esteem

3.2.2. Employment

3.2.2.1. Most students believe that graduation from college will lead to greater employment opportunities, and they are right.

3.2.3. Education and Mobility

4. Chapter 5

4.1. Philosophy of education is firmly rooted in practice, whereas philosophy, as a discipline, stands on its own with no specific end in mind.

4.1.1. All teachers, regardless of their action orientation, have a personal philosophy of life that colors the way in which they select knowledge; order their classrooms; interact with students, peers, administrators; and select values to emphasize within their classrooms.

4.2. Pragmatism

4.2.1. Pragmatism is generally viewed as an American philosophy that developed in the latter part of the 19th century.

4.2.1.1. Pragmatism might ask "do the results achieved solve the problem?"

4.3. Generic Notions

4.3.1. Insrumentalism

4.3.2. Experimentalism

4.4. Key Researchers

4.4.1. George Peirce

4.4.2. William James

4.4.3. John Dewey

4.5. Goal of Education

4.5.1. Dewey's vision of schools was rooted in the social order: he did not see ideas as separate from social conditions

4.5.2. Ideas were implemented, challenged, and restructured with the goal of providing students with the knowledge to improve the social order.

4.6. Role of the Teacher

4.6.1. The teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows; rather, the teacher assumes the position as the facilitator.

4.6.2. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, helps plan the course of study.

4.7. Method of Instruction

4.7.1. Dewey proposed that children learn both individually and in groups.

4.7.2. He believed that children should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they already know.

4.8. Curriculum

4.8.1. Integrated Curriculum

4.8.2. Progressive educators are not wedded to a fixed curriculum either: rather, curriculum changes as the social order changes and as children's interests and needs change.

5. Chapter 6

5.1. Schools as Organizations

5.1.1. Marion County School System

5.1.2. State Senators

5.1.2.1. Larry Stutt

5.1.3. House of Representatives

5.1.3.1. Mike Millican

5.1.4. State Superintendent

5.1.4.1. Tommy R. Bice

5.1.5. State Board Member

5.1.5.1. Jeffery Newman

5.1.6. Marion County Superintendent

5.1.6.1. Ryan Hollingsworth

5.1.7. Board Members

5.1.7.1. Ann West

5.1.7.1.1. L.C. Fowler

5.1.8. Japan's Organization System

5.1.8.1. Benefits from the work ethic in the Japanese culture

5.1.9. Two Educational Systems

5.1.9.1. Traditional Public Schools

5.1.9.1.1. Nonformal Schools

6. Chapter 7

6.1. Teachers and students in teacher education programs too often think in very simplistic terms about what the schools teach.

6.2. Schools teach a specific curriculum that is mandated and implemented by the state education and it is done in an organized manner within the schools.

6.3. Developmentalist Curriculum is the historical theory that I would advocate

6.3.1. Developmentalist Curriculum is related to the needs and interests of the students rather than the needs of society.

6.3.2. This curriculum emanated from the aspects of Dewey's writings related to the relationship between the child and the curriculum as well as developmental psychologists such as Piaget.

6.3.3. It is emphasized the process of teaching as well as its context.

6.3.4. The developmental curriculum stressed the importance of relating schooling to the life experiences of each child in a way that would make education come alive in a meaningful manner.

6.4. Sociology of the Curriculum concentrates on the function of what is taught in schools and its relationship to the role of schools within society.

6.4.1. Sociology of Curriculum is concerned with both the formal and informal curriculum.

6.4.2. The hidden curriculum is the theory approach that i will advocate in my classroom.

7. NCLB's requirement is that all schools have highly qualified teachers in every classroom highlighted the problem of unqualified teachers in urban schools

8. Educational Reform

8.1. Teachers can make a difference

8.2. Teacher Quality

8.2.1. But it also shows taht sometimes the teacher isn't highly qualified in the subject area that they teach in.

8.2.1.1. That is a result in the practice that is called out of field teaching.

8.2.1.1.1. This is a crucial practice because highly qualified in that circumstance.

9. Curriculum and Pedagogy

9.1. Teachers and students in teacher education programs too often think in very simplistic terms about what the schools teach.

9.2. Schools teach a specific curriculum that is mandated and implemented by the state education and it is organized manner within the schools

9.3. Developmentalist Curriculum is the historical theory taht I would advocate

9.3.1. Developmentalist Curriculum is related to the needs and interest of the students rather than the needs of society.

9.3.2. This curriculum emanated from the aspects of Dewey"s writings related ot the relationship between the child and the curriculum as well as developmental psychologists such as Piaget.

9.3.3. It is emphasized the process of teaching as well as its context.

9.3.4. The developmental curriculum stressed the importance of relating schooling to the life experiences of each child in a way that would make education come alive in a meaningful manner.

9.4. Sociology of the Curriculum concentrates on the function of what is taught in schools and its relationship to the role of schools within society

9.4.1. Sociology of Curriculum is conerned with both the formal and informal curriculum

9.4.2. The hidden curriculum is the theory approach that I will advocate in my classroom.

10. Equality of Opportunity

10.1. The United States has only been partially successful in developing an educational system that is truly meritocratic and just.

10.2. This belief in equal opportunity in the context of the social realities of life in the United States

10.3. Calculating educational and life outcomes in measured by the people in the world. There are rich people, poor people, and people in between.

10.3.1. Class

10.3.1.1. Race

10.3.1.1.1. Gender

10.3.1.1.2. An individual's gender was directly related to his or her educational attainment.

10.3.1.2. An individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve.

10.3.2. Student in different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences.

10.4. The attainment of the students that are varied by race of 17 year old students is that the scale score for white students are way higher than the blacks and hispanics are academically lower.

10.5. The Coleman Study was to hopefully find rationale for federally funding those schools that were primarily attended by minority students.

10.6. The round one to responses of Coleman study.

10.6.1. Where the individual goes to school has little effect on his or her cognitive growth or educational mobility.

11. Educational Inequality

11.1. Unequal educational outcomes among various groups in the U.S. society.

11.2. School-Centered Explanations is that in education inequality often worked from a set of liberal political and policy assumptions about why students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

11.2.1. Genetic Differences

11.2.1.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

11.2.1.1.1. Cultural Difference Theories

11.2.1.1.2. Working class and nonwhite students may indeed arrive at school with different cultural dispositions and without skills and attitudes required by the schools.

11.2.1.2. Suggests that the working=class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage.