My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Sociological Perpectives

1.1. Theoretical Perspective

1.1.1. Functional Theories: A major theoretical perspective in sociology has its origin in the works of Emile Durkheim, one who was interested in how social order was possible or how society remained relatively stable.

1.1.2. Conflict Theories: emphasized the role of coercion and power in producing social order, a perspective that was derived from the works of Karl Marx, one who saw society fragmented into groups that competed for social and economic resources.

1.1.3. Interactional Theories :relies on the symbolic meaning that people develop and rely upon in the process of social interaction and traces its origins to Max Weber's assertions that individuals act according to their interpretation of the meaning of their world. The American philosopher George Herbert Mead introduced this perspective to American sociology in the 1920s.

1.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

1.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes: Based on research from numerous colleagues, differences between schools account for very little of the differences in student achievement. It went on to say that the more education individuals receive the more like they were to read and take part in politics and public affairs.

1.2.2. Employment: according to text, the higher the education the greater employment opportunities.

1.2.3. Educational and Mobility: it was said that mobility was based on social standings to a certain extend. When it came to the poor and upper class it did not really make a difference in their ability to climb. Yet in the middle class, the more education the more possibility of moving upward.

2. History of US Education

2.1. Movement

2.1.1. 1. Colonial Era: many of the educational tasks traditionally handled by parents became the responsibility of the schools.

2.1.2. 2. The Rise of Common School: The belief that publicly supported schools could and should exist for all children, regardless of social class, gender, religion, ethnicity, or country of origin.

2.1.3. 3. The Emergence of Public High schools came about due to the increasing number of students attending between 1880 and 1920.

2.2. Interpretation

2.2.1. 1. Democratic-Liberal Schools believed that the history of the US education involved the progressive evolution of a school system committed t providing equality of opportunity for all.

2.2.2. 2. Radical-Revisionist Schools believed that the school system expanded to meet the needs of the elites in society to control of the working class and immigrants as well as for economic efficiency and productivity.

2.2.3. 3. In a Conservative Perspective, it is said that the historical pursuit of social and political objectives resulted in significant harm to the traditional academic goals of school.

3. Politics of Education: viewing schools analytically from a variety of approaches provide an understanding of the connection between teacher, student, school, and society.

3.1. Liberal Perspective: believes that the free market is prone to significant abuses, particularly to those groups who are disadvantaged economically and politically.

3.1.1. 1. It was in the 20th century that the liberal perspective view originated from John Dewey's works.

3.1.2. 2. New Deal area came during President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This is when the liberal view became politically dominant.

3.1.3. 3. It's basis of economic theories came from John Maynard Keynes, who believed that the capitalist market economy was prone to cycles of recession and that the government had to intervene.

3.2. Radical Perspective: believes that democratic socialism is a fairer political-economic system and does not believe that free market capitalism is the best form of economic organization.

3.2.1. 1. The belief of a fairer political economic system came based on the writings of 19th century German political economist and philosopher Karl Marx.

3.2.2. 2. Radicals also believed that the U.S. social problems could not be solved under the existing economic system.

3.2.3. 3. Social problems are structural in nature and are caused by the structure of the U.S. society and must be addressed as such, a society.

4. Philosophy of Education: Pragmatism: an approach that assesses the truth of meaning of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application.

4.1. Key Researchers in Pragmatism are George Sander Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Some earlier pragmatist would be Frances Bacon, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau.

4.2. Generic notions of pragmatism proposed that educators start with the needs and interest of the child in the classroom, allow the child to participate in planning their own course of study, employ project method or group learning, and depend heavily on experiential learning.

4.3. The goal of education in a pragmatic thought is that schools provide "conjoint, communicated experience" that functions as preparation for life in a democratic society.

4.4. The role of a teacher is to encourage, offer suggestions, questions, and help plan, implement courses of study, write curriculum and command several disciplines to create and implement curriculum.

4.5. The method of instruction should be delivered individually and in groups.

4.6. In pragmatism, a core curriculum or integrated curriculum is used. They would use what we call now days themed units, where they would integrate all aspects of core curriculum based on the theme they are studying.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Major Stakeholders

5.1.1. State Board of Education Members: Governor Robert J. Bentley, President; Jeffery Newman, Vice President, District 07; Dr. Yvette Richardson, President Pro Tem, District 04; Thomas R. Bice, Ed.D (State Superintendent) Secretary and Executive Officer Matthew S. Brown, J.D., District 01; Betty Peters, District 02; Stephanie Bell, District 03; Ella B. Bell, District 05; Cynthia Sanders McCarty, Ph.D., District 06; Mary Scott Hunter, District 08

5.1.2. Local Board of Education Members Cullman County: Mr. Jason Speegle, Chairman; Mr. Gene Sullins, Vice Chairman Local Superintendents: Dr. Craig A. Ross, Superintendent; Dr. Brandon Payne, Asst Superintendent

5.1.3. State Senate Districts: Richard Shelby; Jefferson “Jeff” Sessions Education and Youth Affairs: Brewbaker, Dick Chairperson Ross, Quinton T Vice Chairperson

5.1.4. State Representative Districts: Robert Aderholt Education Policy: Collins, Terri Chair; Rich, Kerry, Vice Chair Ways and Means Education: Poole, Bill, Chair; McMillan, Steve, Vice Chair

5.2. Another Country's Educational System

5.2.1. Australia's education system is broadly divided into three broad areas: primary school, secondary school and tertiary education. Each of these areas features both public (government-funded) and private (independently funded) institutions, although the majority of private institutions also receive some government funding.

5.2.2. In Australia, the federal Ministry of Education is responsible for funding and supervising primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Primary and secondary education is administered on the state level by the authorities of the respective states.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Historical Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Humanist Curriculum: Reflects the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educated citizenry: the purpose of education is to present to students the best of what has been thought and written.

6.1.2. Social Efficiency Curriculum: a philosophically pragmatic approach developed in the early 20th century as a putatively democratic response to the development of mass public secondary education.

6.1.3. Developmentalist Curriculum: Curriculum related to the needs and interest of the student rather than the needs of society.

6.2. Sociological Curriculum Theory

6.2.1. Hidden Curriculum: includes what is taught through implicit rules and messages, as well as through what is left out of the formal curriculum.

6.2.2. Formal Curriculum: the school curriculum includes both what is formally included as the subject matter to be learned and informal and hidden.

6.2.3. Multicultural consist of content integration, knowledge construction, prejudice reduction, equity pedagogy, and empowering school culture.

7. Equality of Opportunity

8. Education Inequality

9. Educational Reform