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Organic Chemistry by Mind Map: Organic
Chemistry
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Organic Chemistry

Alkenes CnH2n

Chemical Properties

More reactive than Alkane due to the presence of double bond

Chemical Reactions

Combustion, Complete, Produces Carbon dioxide and Steam, Incomplete, Carbon monoxide is produced

Addition Reaction, Hydrogenation, Catalyst: Nickel, at 200degrees celsius, Alkanes is formed, Hydration, Alcohol, Bromination, Decolourises bromine

Others

Functional group: C=C

Unsaturated compounds

Alkanes CnH2n+2

Physical Properties

Solubility, Insoluble in water, Soluble in organic solvents

As the number of carbon atoms increase...., higher bp/mp, Less volatile/flammable, More viscous

Chemical Reactions

Combustion, Complete, Produces carbon dioxide and steam, Incomplete, Carbon monoxide is produced

Substitution (with halogens in UV light)

Others

functional group C-C

Are saturated compounds

Each member differs by next by a -CH2 group of atoms

Polymerisation

Addition

breaking of C=C in smaller alkene coumpounds

Condensation

joining small monomer molecules by elimination of small molecules like water molecules

Alcohols CnH2n+1OH

Physical Properties

Colourless

Miscible in water

Flammable

BpMp increases as Mr increases

Reactions

Combustion, Alcohol + Oxygen ---> Water + Carbon Dioxide

Oxidation, To Carboxylic Acid

Esterification, Alcohol + Carboxylic Acid --> Water + Ester

Manufacturing Ethanol

From Ethene

By Fermentation

Uses of Ethanol, In Alcoholic Drinks, As a Solvent, As A fuel

Carboxylic Acids CnH2n+1COOH

REACTIONS

produced by oxidation of alcohols in oxygen or by acidified potassium dichromate(VI)

with ALCOHOLS : ESTERIFICATION

Properties, weak acids, PARTIAL DISSOCIATION, completely miscible with water

METALS, Metal + Acid --> Hydrogen + Salt

CARBONATES, Acid + Carbonate ---> Carbon Dioxide + Salt

ALKALI AND INSOLUBLE BASES, Acid + Base/Alkali ---> Water + Salt

Hydrocarbons

Cracking

hydrocarbon cracking is the process of breaking long-chain hydrocarbons into short ones

Cracking larger hydrocarbons, Alkanes and Alkenes

Refininig of Petroleum

As molecules becomes bigger..., Boiling points increase, Liquid burn less readily, Liquid more viscous, Liquid burn with smokier flame

Fractions have different properties and uses, Petroleum Gas, 1-4 Carbon Molecules, Cooking, Petrol (gasoline), fuel motor vehicles, Naptha, plastics, detergents, Kerosene(paraffin), aircraft, diesel, diesel engines, trains, lubricating oil, waxes, polish, bitumen, paving roads

Macromolecules

Large molecules built up from small units

Amide and ester linkages  

Addition Polymerisation, Ester Linkage

Condensation polymerisation, Amide Linkage, Examples:, Nylon (Synthetic), Terylene (Synthetic)

Non-biodegradable

Fire hazard

May produce poisonous gases when burnt

Causes land pollution