My Foundations of Education Cassidy Grist

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My Foundations of Education Cassidy Grist by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education  Cassidy Grist

1. History of U.S. Education

1.1. The Rise of the Common School

1.1.1. 1. The struggle for free education was led by Horace Mann who wanted the 'common school' to be established

1.1.2. 2. Taxation for the common school, or free publicly funded elementary schools, was viewed as unjust by nonrecipients

1.1.3. 3. This reform was important for the development of education because it began free public education in the U.S.

1.2. Radical-Revisionist School

1.2.1. 1. The radical-revionist historians of education revised the history of education in a more critical direction

1.2.2. 2. The radical interpretation of U.S. educational history is pessimistic

1.2.3. 3. While acknowledging educational expansion, they suggest that this process has benefited the elites more than the masses, and has not produced either equality of opportunity or results

2. Equality of Opportunity

2.1. Educational Achievement and Attainment of African Americans

2.1.1. 1. For persons of both sexes 25 years and older, 84% of African-Americans graduated from high school

2.1.2. 2. For persons of both sexes 25 years and older, 19.9% of African-Americans received a bachelor's degree

2.2. Responses to Coleman: Coleman Round 3

2.2.1. 1. Where an individual goes to school is often related to her race and socioeconomic background

2.2.2. 2. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class

2.2.3. 3. Borman and Dowling argue that race and class are predictors of academic success

2.2.4. 4. Borman and Dowling's study concludes that education reform must focus on eliminating the high level of segregation that remains in the U.S. educational system and that schools must bring an end to tracking systems and biases that favor white and middle-class students

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Functional Theories

3.1.1. 1. They stress the interdependence of the social system

3.1.2. 2. Functionalists view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work

3.1.3. 3. They believe educational reform is supposed to create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity

3.1.4. 4. One of the earliest sociologists with a functional point of view about the relation of school and society was Emile Durkheim

3.2. Knowledge & Attitudes

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge young people acquire in school can be related to what type of school they attend

3.2.2. 2. The effective schools research demonstrates that academically oriented schools do produce higher rates of learning

3.3. Employment

3.3.1. 1. Studies have shown that a college degree will earn one a better salary than someone with just a high school diploma

3.3.2. 2. There is still some inequality when it comes to college graduates' salaries and the differences between the salary of a woman and a man, age, etc. that affects many people coming out of school with college degrees

3.4. Mobility

3.4.1. 1. Most Americans believe that more education leads to economic and social mobility

4. Educational Inequality

4.1. Functionalist Theory (Sociological Explanation)

4.1.1. 1. Functionalists expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results, but these results ought to be based on individual differences between students, not on group differences

4.1.2. 2. Functionalists believe that unequal educational outcomes are the result of unequal educational opportunities

4.1.3. 3. Functionalists focus on the attempts to provide equality of opportunity and to ensure a meritocratic system

4.1.4. 4. This perspective has been the foundation of liberal educational policy in the U.S. since the 1960s

4.2. Cultural Deprivation Theories (Student-Centered Explanation)

4.2.1. 1. Cultural deprivation theory, popularized in the 1960s, suggests that working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources (such as books and other educational stimuli) and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage

4.2.2. 2. Cultural deprivation theorists assert that the poor have a deprived culture-- one that lacks the value system of middle-class culture

4.2.3. http://revisesociology.com/2014/02/15/the-effect-of-cultural-deprivation-on-education/ | The Effect of Cultural Deprivation on Education

5. Educational Reform

5.1. School-Based Reform

5.1.1. Charter Schools

5.1.1.1. 1. A charter school is a publicly funded independent school established by teachers, parents, or community groups under the terms of a charter with a local or national authority

5.1.1.2. 2. Demand for charter schools remain high, as evidenced by the 70% of charter schools with waiting lists for admission

5.1.1.3. 3. States are responding to this demand by authorizing more charters and amending charter laws to accommodate the desire for growth, while other states without charter laws consider their enactment

5.1.1.4. 4. Proponents of charter schools have long argued that they provide a more effective and efficient alternative for low-income children, especially in urban areas

5.2. School Finance Reforms

5.2.1. 1. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Rodriguez v. San Antonio, which declared there is no constitutional right to an equal education, school finance and adequacy advocates litigated at the state level

5.2.2. 2. Before Rodriguez, Robinson v. Cahill was filed in 1970 against the state of NJ, citing discrimination in funding for some school districts, which prosecutors believed was creating disparities in urban students' education by failing to provide all students with a "thorough and efficient"education, as guaranteed under the NJ State Constitution

5.2.3. 3. Although the state enacted an income tax in accordance with the the ruling of the case in 1973, the program was never fully funded

5.2.4. 4. The court ruled in 1990, stating that more funding was needed to serve the children in the poorer school districts

5.2.5. 2. In order to provide a "thorough and efficient education" in urban districts, funding was equalized between urban and suburban school districts

6. Politics of Education

6.1. Conservative Perspective

6.1.1. 1. A positive view of U.S. society

6.1.2. 2. Believes that capitalism is the best economic system

6.1.3. 3. Believes social problems are caused by individuals and groups and must be solved with little or no direct government intervention

6.2. Traditional Vision

6.2.1. 1. Views schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of the U.S. society

6.2.2. 2. Believes the school should pass on the best of what was and what is

6.2.3. 3. Encompass the right liberal to the conservative spectrums

7. Philosophy of Education

7.1. Pragmatism

7.1.1. Generic Notations

7.1.1.1. Dewey's form of pragmatism-- instrumentalism and experimentalism-- was founded on the new psychology, behaviorism, and the philosophy of pragmatism

7.1.2. Key Researchers

7.1.2.1. The founders of Pragmatism are George Sanders Peirce, John Dewey, and William James

7.1.2.2. Other philosophers that are classifies as pragmatists are John Locke, Frances Bacon, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau

7.1.3. Goal of Education

7.1.3.1. Dewey believed the role of school was to integrate children into a democratic society

7.1.3.2. The primary role of education was growth

7.1.4. Role of Teacher

7.1.4.1. The teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure, but rather the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator

7.1.4.2. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study

7.1.5. Method of Instruction

7.1.5.1. Formal instruction was abandoned

7.1.5.2. Dewey proposed that children learn both individually and in group and that they should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know-- problem-solving method

7.1.6. Curriculum

7.1.6.1. Progressive schools generally follow Dewey's notion of a core curriculum (or a integrated curriculum)

8. Schools as Organizations

8.1. Major Stakeholders in Alabama & Jackson County, AL

8.1.1. Superintendent of Jackson County: Dr. Bart Reeves

8.1.2. State BOE Member for District 8: Mary Scott Hunter

8.1.3. Alabama State Governor: Robert Bentley

8.1.4. Alabama House of Representatives for the 5th District: Mo Brooks

8.1.5. Alabama State Senators: Richard Shelby & Jefferson "Jeff" Sessions

8.1.6. Alabama State Superintendent: Thomas R. Bice

8.1.7. Local School Board: Jackson Co BOE

8.2. Germany & its Educational System

8.2.1. Germany selects and sorts its children through examinations at a relatively young age and tracks them into a tripartite system of secondary education

8.2.1.1. The "Hauptschule" is designed for those destined for blue-collar & lower-level service positions

8.2.1.2. The "Realschule" is for lower-level white-collar & technical positions

8.2.1.3. The "Gymnasium" is for academic preparation for university & the intellectual & management professions

8.2.2. By the end of the lower secondary years, students from the Hauptschule and Realschule enter the distinctive dual system of apprenticeship

8.2.2.1. Students spend part of the day working in apprenticeships in businesses and the other part in school

8.2.3. Students in the Gymnasium complete a rigorous academic curriculum that prepares them to take Abitur

8.2.3.1. "Abitur" is the college entrance exam in Germany

8.2.3.2. About 25% qualify for university attendance (which is state supported and tuition free)

8.2.3.3. Of these, more than half enroll in "Fachhochschulen" or technical colleges

8.2.3.4. The remainder enter a four-year rigorous academic education in the arts and sciences, in universities that are similar to one another

8.2.4. The rigid secondary school tracking system leads into a somewhat equal and undifferentiated system of higher education

8.2.4.1. Less that 15% of German students complete the university education

8.2.5. The German education system is almost the opposite of the United States educational system

9. Curriculum and Pedagogy

9.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

9.1.1. 1. The developmentalist curriculum is related to the needs and interests of the students rather than the needs of society

9.1.2. 2. This curriculum emanated from the aspects of Dewey's writings related to the relationship between the child and the curriculum

9.1.3. 3. It emphasizes the process of teaching as well as its content

9.2. The Modern Functionalist Theory

9.2.1. 1. The Modern Functionalist Theory was developed in the U.S. through the works of Parsons and Dreeben

9.2.2. 2. It stresses the role in preparing students for the increasingly complex roles required in a modern society

9.2.3. 3. The society the Modern Functionalist Theory prepares students for is democratic & meritocratic

9.2.4. 4. The school curriculum is to designed to enable students to function in this type of society

9.2.5. 5. To functionalists, the specific content of the curriculum (ex. history or literature) is less important than the role of schools in teaching the students how to learn