Freedom Walkers

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Freedom Walkers by Mind Map: Freedom Walkers

1. Written by Russell Freedman

2. Claudette Colvin

2.1. High School A Student

2.2. Took her stand on March 2nd, 1955

2.2.1. Indicted on false charges Violating segregation laws [Innocent] Assault and Battery and Resisting arrest [false]

2.2.2. Found guilty of assault

2.3. Was decided against as the poster person for black civil rights

2.4. Typically forgotten in favor of Rosa Parks

3. Segregation before the bus boycott

3.1. Literally everything was segregated

3.1.1. Examples include: Water Fountains Vending Machines Waiting rooms Movie Theaters Doors to buses [Blacks had to reenter through back door after paying fare] Sometimes bus drivers would drive off after blacks had paid their fare and were reentering through the back door Hotels Libraries Schools

4. E.D. Nixon

4.1. Came to Claudette's defense

4.2. Founded Montgomery Branch of NAACP

4.3. Recognized as influential in black communities by blacks and whites alike

4.4. When hearing about Rosa Parks, he called the jail to ask about her charges, and was told it was 'none of his da**ed business'.

4.4.1. He called a white attorney who got a civil answer, 'violating state segregation laws', and bailed her out with his wife.

4.4.2. Decided on Rosa as the poster lady for bus desegregation

5. Rosa Parks

5.1. Worked as a seamstress

5.1.1. Was fired after conviction

5.2. Dedicated to NAACP volunteer work

5.2.1. Worked as a secretary there since 1943

5.2.2. Adviser to orginizational Youth Council Trained them to resist white supremacy Sent them to white-only library

5.3. Field Hand when she was young

5.4. Got a high school diploma

5.4.1. Mostly useless however- 'I had a High School diploma, but I could only get jobs that didn't require a diploma [due to my race]'

5.5. Took her stand [or seat] on December 1st, 1955

5.5.1. Told cops; 'why do you push us all around?' Cops replied; ' I don't know, but the law is the law, and you're under arrest.'

6. Jo Ann Robinson

6.1. Worked at Alabama State university

6.1.1. Used its mimeograph machine with her fellow teachers to print pamphlets for the boycott 52,500 were printed It read: Another Negro woman has been arrested and thrown into jail because she refused to get up out of her seat on the bus for a white person to sit down... If we do not do something to stop these arrests, they will continue. The next time it may be you, or your daughter, or mother. This woman's case will come up on Monday. We are, therefore, asking every Negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest of the arrest and trial.

7. Martin Luther King, Jr.

7.1. Doctorate in Theology at Boston Universtity

7.2. Decided against violence for boycott to set themselves apart from the KKK

7.3. Asked a former bus boycott leader how he had organized a carpool to do the same

7.3.1. Very successful alternative to taxis

7.4. He got threatening letters and phone calls around the time of the carpool crackdown. Examples include:

7.4.1. Postcards signed KKK stating; 'get out of town or else'.

7.4.2. Callers who would hang up when King or his wife answered.

7.4.3. Callers who cursed and insulted anyone who answered.

7.4.4. A particular instance of: 'Listen, n*****, we've taken all we want from you. Before next week you'll be sorry you ever came to Montgomery.' 3 Days Later, his house was bombed.

7.5. Kings life ends at 39 to James Earl Ray's bullet.

8. General Boycott info

8.1. On Day one, white-helmeted motorcycle cops trailed buses to 'protect Negro buses'

8.1.1. The police chiefs plan to 'protect' the Negroes who rode the bus from 'Negro goon squads' backfired, and just scared off anyone who wasn't participating in the boycott to join it.

8.2. Nixon asked taxi companies to give a discount for Negroes who weren't riding the buses

8.2.1. Within week one, Police Commissioner Clyde Sellers threatened arrest to any taxi driver who charged less than 45 cents, effectively killing the idea. From there, he ordered a crackdown on carpool drivers. Tickets were written for minor and even fake violations. King was arrested as well for speeding 30 in a 25 MPH area. He was taken to jail, but released him when tons of blacks protested noisily outside.

8.3. It took only a month for bus companies to announce that they were losing money

8.3.1. They asked to double the fare and was granted permission to raise it 1&1/2 regular It didn't help, so whites were urged to ride the bus. But they drove cars, and typically couldn't bring themselves to use public transportation.

8.3.2. By January, the bus company warned of their looming bankruptcy Downtown businesses were also suffering from lack of customers

8.4. A few whites actually supported the boycott and joined the carpool

8.5. Mayor Gayle [Hm...] had been negotiating with the blacks, but with more pressure from segregationists, he stopped negotiations.

8.6. City Commissioners were convinced that the blacks in general wanted to ride the buses but were being tricked by the boycott ringleaders. King was singled out.

8.6.1. Therefore, they decided they could end the boycott by frightening and/or discrediting King and his co-workers.

8.7. February 21. 115 blacks- King, 23 ministers, and all carpool drivers were indicted on an old state law prohibiting boycotts 'without just cause or legal excuse'.

8.7.1. Everyone literally walked into jail in defiance of this.

9. Parks Trial

9.1. Found guilty within 10 minutes and fined $14: the equivalent of ~$140 today.

9.1.1. Appeal filed. Appeal thrown out on technicality. New suit filed in federal court. June 4. 2-1 vote finds bus segregation unconstitutional.

10. Montgomery Improvement Orginization

10.1. King elected president unanimously

10.2. Formed to plan boycott

11. The House Bombings

11.1. January 31st. King was speaking at a mass meeting and was pulled aside to be told a homemade bomb had been thrown through a window of his house.

11.1.1. No one was injured, however, after expressing regret of the incidents occurrence, someone stated: [shortened] 'Regrets are fine, Mr. Sellers, but you must face the fact that the atmosphere you created caused this bombing. This is the result of your 'get tough' policy.'

11.1.2. Two days later, dynamite was thrown on Nixon's front lawn. No injuries again. This resulted in a volunteer protection group for King.

11.1.3. Jo Ann Robinson got a stone through a window in her house and acid on the top of her car, making holes in it.

11.1.4. Robert Graetz, The white minister having openly supported the boycott, gets 3 sticks of dynamite in his front. Once again, no injuries. Mayor Gayle accuses Rob of bombing his own house as a publicity stunt.

12. The Aftermath

12.1. Two days after the boycott ended, a shotgun round was fired into Kings home. Guess how many injuries. In case you are an idiot, there were none.

12.2. Christmas Eve. A car pulls up to a bus stop, 4-5 men jump out and beat the black 15-year-old girl, and drives away.

12.3. Snipers attack integrated buses, sending a pregnant black to the hospital.

12.3.1. In response, buses were shut down after 5, meaning 9 to 5 workers couldn't bus home.

12.4. Bombs were set off at 4 churches and Ralph Abernathy, Robert Graetz, and Kings houses. The homes were damaged and 2 of the churches were practically obliterated. I probably don't even need to tell you no one was hurt.

12.5. Eventually, the bombings and sniping ceased, and bus times went back to normal.