Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. Looks at social evolution as a process that enables the strongest individuals and/or groups to survive.

1.1.2. From this point of view, individuals and groups must compete in the social environment in order to survive.

1.1.3. Human process is dependent on individual initiative and drive.

1.2. Progressive Vision

1.2.1. Tends to view the school as central to solving social problems, as a vehicle for upward mobility, as essential to the development of individual potential, and as an integral part of a democratic society.

1.2.2. Sees the role of education as balancing the needs of society and the individual in a manner that is consistent with a democratic and meritocratic society.

1.2.3. Stresses the school's role in providing the necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. No Child Left Behind, 2001

2.1.1. A reform that has had the most influence, whether positive or negative, is President G. W. Bush's No Child Left Behind of 2001.

2.1.2. The goal of this reform was to promote equity and excellence, but it is not clear how effective this reform has been.

2.1.3. This reform has been a recurring debate in education field for 14 years, making it very influential.

2.2. Democratic-Liberals

2.2.1. Democratic-liberals believe that the history of education involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all.

2.2.2. Tend to interpret U.S. educational history optimistically instead of focusing on the flawed march toward increased opportunities

2.2.3. Suggest that each period of education expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segements of the population

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Functional Theories

3.1.1. Views society as one that stresses the interdependence of the social system

3.1.2. Emile Durkheim was the earliest sociologist that embraced a functional viewpoint of the relation of school and society.

3.1.3. Tend to assume that consensus is the normal state in society and that conflict represents a breakdown of shared values. In a well functioning society, schools socialize students into the appropriate values, and sort and select students according to their abilities.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Teacher Behavior: Teachers have a huge impact on student learning because they are models for students. They influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy.

3.2.2. Student Peer Groups and Alienation: I chose this topic because I have seen the effects first hand. No student wants to feel left out at school, ever. This experience can make or break a student. Students attack one another with mean words and labels. It is our jobs as teachers to be able to recognize students that are hurting because of the mean words of other students. This is crucial for child development and student success.

3.2.3. Education and Mobility: A huge component of the American school atmosphere is that occupational and social mobility begin as soon as you walk into the doors of a school. It is popular belief that education opens the doors of opportunities. This is true because every successful person in society has had schooling of some sort. Their success is rooted back to their education. Education is the key to success.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Progressivism

4.1.1. Generic Notions- proposed that educators should start with the interests and needs of the students

4.1.2. Key Researcher- John Dewey 1859-1910

4.1.3. Goal of Education- According to Dewey, the goal of education is growth. Growth should never reach a stopping point, but should continue on to more growth.

4.1.4. Role of the Teacher- The teacher is not lecturing behind a podium all day. The teacher should be a facilitator of learning. They should offer suggestions, questions, and guide the students to be productive.

4.1.5. Method of Instruction- Dewey suggested that children should learn individually and in groups. Children should be able to transition often in the classroom. Teachers must be able to make this a smooth transition.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. State Superintendent- Thomas Bice

5.2. Local Superintendent- Jennifer Gray

5.3. Local Congressman- Mo Brooks

5.4. State Board Representatives- Jeffery Newman

5.5. Local School Board- Chad Holden, Jerry Fulmer

5.6. Local State House Representatives- Lynne Greer and Marcel Black

5.7. Local State Senators- Richard Shelby and Jeff Sessions

5.8. Germany's educational system is significantly different from the educational system in the U.S. Germany uses examinations to select and sort the students and will send them into a tripartite system. The three levels are Hauptshule, Realschule, and the Gymnasium. Hauptshule is designed for those children who are "destined" for blue collar and lower-level service positions. Realschule is for those children meant to be white-collar and technical positions. Last, the Gymnasium is for academic preparation for university level curriculum and intellectual professions.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Historical Curriculum- "Social Efficiency Curriculum"- was a pragmatist approach that focuses on the needs of the students. The main thing that drew me to this curriculum was that it teaches a different curriculum to each student, one that focuses on the students' strengths- not the weaknesses.

6.2. Sociological Curriculum- Conflict Theory- Conflict theorists believe that the role of the school is to teach attitudes and behaviors, in a hidden curriculum, that are required in the workplace. I honestly did not agree one hundred percent with this theory, but this theory lined up better than any of the others in the chapter.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational Achievement and Attainment: Females

7.1.1. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13, and 17; females achieve at slightly higher levels in mathematics at age 9 and at lower levels at ages 13 and 17; and females achieve at lower levels in science at ages 9, 13, and 17.

7.1.2. These gaps in achievement are reflected in attainment among groups. Female students, however, outperform male students in most categories, with the exception of math and science.

7.1.3. There are achievement gaps all across the border. These gaps are between males and females, special needs students, blacks and whites, middle-class and lower-class. There are gaps everywhere, but our job as teachers are to close the gaps and teach to students in a way that they will understand.

7.2. Coleman Study

7.2.1. Where an individual goes to school has little or no effect on his or her cognitive growth or educational mobility.

7.2.2. Schools make a difference in terms of student outcomes. Schools are organizations that are suppose to be filled with highly qualified teachers that can promote an engaged learning environment for all students, regardless of class, race, or learning ability.

7.2.3. The relationship between social class, race, and achievement is a complex one. Although higher social class is correlated with a higher achievement, the degree to which this is due to factors inside or outside the schools is the subject of significant research.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological Theories of Unequal Educational Achievement

8.1.1. Functionalists expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results, but these results ought to be based on individual differences between students, not on group differences.

8.1.2. Functionalists and conflict theorists agree that understanding educational inequality is a difficult task.

8.1.3. Functionalists believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals.

8.2. Student-Centered Explanations

8.2.1. The argument that unequal educational performance by working-class and non-white students is due to genetic differences in intelligence was offered by psychologist Authur Jensen in a highly controversial article in the Harvard Educational Review (1969).

8.2.2. This theory of genetics playing a role in educational gaps is more widely accepted by social scientists, because they view social and cultural factors as essential.

8.2.3. This research indicates that although social and psychological factors are crucial, biological factors cannot be ruled out entirely.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. During the 1980s and 1990s, many educational researchers revealed the fact that most public schools were failing in terms of student achievement. Because of this, something as to be done. This lead to many reforms, but one that stood out was the intrasectional school choice policy.

9.1.2. Intrasectional school choice policies include only public schools. This is where states permit students to attend any public school district in the state, as long as the racial balance is not upset.

9.1.3. The idea of this was to allow students to attend districts that their address does not fall under, if the school is performing better than the school in the students current district.

9.2. Connecting School, Community, and Societal Reforms

9.2.1. Research conducted over a 20 year period by the Consortium for Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago demonstrates that a combination of school, community, and societal level reforms are necessary to reduce the achievement gap.

9.2.2. The research argues that successful school reform must be based on a number of essential supports, including: 1. leadership as the driver for change; 2. parent-community ties; 3. professional capacity; 4. student-centered learning climate; 5. instructional guidance.

9.2.3. They demonstrate that these supports are most needed and difficult to implement in the highest poverty schools.