# Chapter 2: Basic Concepts of Health

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Chapter 2: Basic Concepts of Health

1.2.1. physical

1.2.2. Social

1.2.3. spiritual

1.2.4. mental

## 2. Blum's Model of Health Determinants

### 2.1. environment

2.1.1. physical, socioeconomic, socioplitical, and sociocultural dimentsions

### 2.2. lifestyle

2.2.1. behavioral risk factors

### 2.3. heredity

2.3.1. genetic factors predispose individuals to certain diseases

## 4. Measures of Physical Health

### 4.1. morbidity

4.1.1. Incidence = Number of new cases during a specified period/ population at risk

4.1.2. Prevalence = total number of cases at a specific point in time/ specified population

4.1.3. The calculation of rates often required dividing a small number by a large number representing a defined population. The result is a fraction. To make the fraction meaningful, they are multiplied by 100 (to get a percentage), 1,000 (to get a rate per 1,000 people), 10,000 (to get a rate per 10,000 people)

### 4.2. mortality

4.2.1. Crude death rate = total deaths (usually in 1 year)/ total population

4.2.2. age-specific mortality rate = number of deaths within a certain age group/ total number of person in the age group

4.2.3. cause-specific mortality rate - number of death from a specific disease/ total population

### 4.3. Births

4.3.1. crude birth rate - number of live births (usually in a 1 year)/ total population

4.3.2. fertility rate = number of live births (usually in 1 year/ number of females aged 15-44

4.3.3. net migration rate = (number of immigrants - number of emigrants)/ total population (during a specific period of time