My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative Perspective

1.1.1. Places its primary emphasis on the individual and states that individuals have the ability to choose their place within a market economy

1.1.2. President Ronald Reagan represented this political perspective. He stressed individual initiative and portrayed the individual as the only one capable of solving his or her own problems.

1.1.3. Favors the traditional views and values while tending to oppose change

1.2. Traditional Vision

1.2.1. Transmits values such as hard work, family unity, and individual initiative

1.2.2. Schools should pass on the basis of what was and what is

1.2.3. Supports the ideas of the conservative perspective

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. A Nation at Risk

2.1.1. A reform founded by President Reagan's Secretary of Education in 1983. It provided findings of U.S education and cited high rates of adult illiteracy, declining SAT scores, and low scores on international comparisons of knowledge. This showed examples of the decline of standards and literacy.

2.1.2. In response to the problems, the committee came up with "The Five New Basics" which are the following: 1) Content, 2) Standards and Expectations, 3) Time, 4) Teaching, and 5) Leadership and Fiscal Support.

2.1.3. Proposed a public school system that projected a rich, well-balanced, and coherent curriculum that would cause for a better life for individuals and the democratic society

2.2. Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1. The history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equal opportunities for all students.

2.2.2. Democratic-liberals believe that the U.S. educational system must move closer to the ideals of equality and excellence, without sacrificing either.

2.2.3. Lawrence A. Cremin, a historian that represented this view, thought that the history of U.S. education involved the expansion of opportunity and purpose. He outlined the democratic liberal perspective as, "That kind of organization is part of the genius of American education-it provides a place for everyone who wishes one, and in the end yields one of the most educated populations in the world" (p.83).

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Functional Theory

3.1.1. Attempts to explain social institutions as collective means to meet individual and social needs.

3.1.2. Emile Durkheim's thoughts on values and cohesion set the tone for how functionalists now approach the study of education. His work is considered the foundation of functionalist theory in sociology.

3.1.3. From a functional point of view, "educational reform is supposed to create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity" (p. 118).

3.2. Effects of Schooling for Employment

3.2.1. Graduating from a college level can increase opportunities for employment.

3.2.2. If people want to earn more income then getting a college and professional degree is important, but education alone does not fully differentiate levels of income.

3.2.3. People should educate themselves in order to set an example for their children. Well-educated people seem to always get the better jobs, therefore it leads to higher income.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Generic Notion

4.1.1. Plato helped to initiate idealism through his concern for the search for truth. His method of philosophy was to engage individuals in a dialogue and question that individual's point of view. This was used by him to move individuals from the world of matter to the world of ideas.

4.2. Key Reseachers

4.2.1. St. Augustine added religion to classical idealism. Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant, and George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel added their visions to Platonic idealism.

4.3. Goal of Education

4.3.1. Just as Plato, educators, which subscribe to idealism, are interested in the search for truth. They encourage students to search for truth as individuals. "Idealists subscribe to the notion that education is transformation: Ideas can change lives" (p. 182).

4.4. Role of Teacher

4.4.1. It is the teacher's responsibility to analyze and discuss ideas with students so that they can be transformed. It is the teacher's role to discuss, pose questions, select materials, and establish an environment. The teacher supports moral education to link ideas to action.

4.5. Method of Instruction

4.5.1. Just as Plato, teachers use the dialectic approach. They believe that through questioning, students are able to discuss, analyze, synthesize and apply readings to society.

4.6. Curriculum

4.6.1. "Idealists place great importance on the study of classics" (p.182). For an elementary idealist curriculum, there is a Great Books course promoted by individuals that institutes a core curriculum. However, many idealists support the back-to-basics approach to education

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Stakeholders

5.1.1. Senior Senator-Richard Shelby; Junior Senator-Jefferson Sessions

5.1.2. House of Representative-Mo Brooks

5.1.3. State Superintendent-Dr.Tommy Dice

5.1.4. Representative on State School Board-Mary Scott Hunter

5.1.5. Local Superintendent-Bart Reeves

5.1.6. Local School Board-Chad Gorham

5.2. Australian Educational System

5.2.1. School education is 13 years and is divided into primary, secondary, and senior secondary school. Primary runs for 7-8 years starting at Kindergarten through to 6 or 7. Secondary school runs for 3-4 years from years 7-10 or 8-10. Senior secondary school runs for two years, which are years 11 and 12. English is the main language in Australian schools. The Australian education system is distinguished by Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) which allows students to move easily from one level of study to the next, and from one institution to another, as long as they satisfy their student visa requirements. https://www.studyinaustralia.gov.au

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1. Related to the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society.

6.1.2. Originated from the aspects of Dewey's writings related to the relationship between the child and the curriculum.

6.1.3. The curriculum was student centered and stressed flexibility in both what was taught and how it was taught, with the emphasis on the development of each student's individual capacities.

6.2. Functionalists Theory

6.2.1. Argues that the school curriculum represents the codification of the knowledge that students need to become competent members of society.

6.2.2. The role of the curriculum is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability.

6.2.3. The role of the schools is to integrate children into the existing social order that is based on consensus and agreement.

7. Equality of Oppourtunity

7.1. Educational Achievement and Attainment of Females

7.1.1. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13, and 17. They have outnumbered males in reading since 1973

7.1.2. Females achieve at a slightly higher rate in mathematics at age 9 and at lower levels at age 13 and 17. Males have outnumbered females in reading since 1973.

7.1.3. Females achieve at lower levels in science at ages 9, 13, and 17. Males have outnumbered females in science since 1973.

7.2. Coleman Round Three

7.2.1. They argue that race and class are predictors of academic success.

7.2.2. Geoffrey Borman and Maritza Dowling evaluated educational data similar to Coleman's in 1966.

7.2.3. Their ideas pertained to the place where an individual went to school. They stated that it is often related to her race and socioeconomic background, but the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on achievement than an individual's race and class.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Functionalists Theory

8.1.1. The foundation of liberal educational policy in the United States since the 1960s.

8.1.2. Believe that unequal educational outcomes are the result of unequal educational opportunities.

8.1.3. Expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results, but these results ought to be based on individual differences between students.

8.2. School Financing

8.2.1. Jonathan Kozol compared public schools in affluent suburbs with public schools in poor inner cities, and called for equalization in school financing.

8.2.2. Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. However, the majority of the funds come form state and local taxes.

8.2.3. Critics believe equalization is a moral imperative, but there is not a widespread agreement on this matter.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-to-Work Programs

9.1.1. The programs were well intentioned, but researchers suggest that they failed to fulfill their promise.

9.1.2. This law created a system to prepare youth for the high-wage, high-skill careers of today's and tomorrow's global economy.

9.1.3. On May 4, 1994 President Bill Clinton signed the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994. It provided seed money to states and local partnerships of business, labor, government, education, and community organizations to develop school-to-work systems.

9.2. School Finance Reforms

9.2.1. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Rodriguez v. San Antonio, school finance equity litigated at the state level.

9.2.2. In 1990, the court rules that more funding was needed to serve the children in the poorer school districts.

9.2.3. In 2009, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled as constitutional a new funding formula, SFRA, that eliminated the Abbott remedies and implemented a formula for allocating funding to all districts based on student needs.