My Foundations of Education - ED 302

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My Foundations of Education - ED 302 by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education - ED 302

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Purpose of education is to transmit the knowledge and skill of a society

1.1.2. Four main purposes:

1.1.2.1. Political purposes

1.1.2.2. Social purposes

1.1.2.3. Economic purposes

1.1.2.4. Intellectual purposes

1.1.3. Types of views:

1.1.3.1. Traditional

1.1.3.2. Progressive

1.2. Perspectives of Education

1.2.1. Three Viewpoints

1.2.1.1. Conservative

1.2.1.1.1. Uses Social Darwinism and believes progress is dependent upon initiative and hardwork

1.2.1.2. Liberal

1.2.1.2.1. Based on John Dewey's works and progressivism

1.2.1.3. Radical

1.2.1.3.1. Based on the teaching of Karl Marx

1.3. Viewpoints of Society

1.3.1. Conservative

1.3.1.1. Postive view

1.3.2. Liberal

1.3.2.1. Positive

1.3.3. Radical

1.3.3.1. Highly negative

1.4. Role of the School

1.4.1. Conservatives

1.4.1.1. Providing educational training to ensure talented and hard-working students receive the tools to maximize economic and social productivity

1.4.2. Liberals

1.4.2.1. Believe schools should train and socialize their students, but also believe that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society.

1.4.3. Radicals

1.4.3.1. Believe schools should be used to eliminate inequalities in society, however, they also believe that equality in schools is only an illusion

1.5. Explanations of Unequal School Performance

1.5.1. Conservatives

1.5.1.1. Believe that individual achievement is determined by intelligence, hard work, and initiative.

1.5.2. Liberals

1.5.2.1. Believe that students begin school with different life chances.

1.5.3. Radicals

1.5.3.1. Believe that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds begin school with unequal opportunities

1.6. Definitions of Educational Problems

1.6.1. Conservative Perspective

1.6.1.1. Decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, and decline of authority

1.6.2. Liberal Perspective

1.6.2.1. Schools limit the chances of poor and minority children, schools place too much emphasis on discipline and authority, and traditional curriculum disregards diverse cultures in society

1.6.2.1.1. My view: There is inequality in school, however, I don't believe it is a result of discipline, authority, or curriculum.

1.6.3. Radical Perspective

1.6.3.1. schools fail the poor, minorities, and women through classist/racist policies, schools stifle understanding of societal problems in America by promoting conformity and the education system promotes equality

1.7. Policy and Reform

1.7.1. Conservatives

1.7.1.1. "Return to the basics..."

1.7.2. Liberals

1.7.2.1. "We need equality and diversification to help our students..."

1.7.3. Radicals

1.7.3.1. "Make equal opportunities and fix social ills..."

1.7.4. Neo-liberals

1.7.4.1. "Reform Austerity, the Market Model, Individualism, State Intervention, Economic Prosperity in Race and Class..."

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Role in Early US History

2.1.1. "Faith, Church, and Community..."

2.2. 17th Century Movement

2.2.1. 1635 Boston Latin Grammar School

2.2.2. 1636 Harvard established

2.2.3. 1647 Old Deluder Satan Law

2.2.4. 1678 - 1890 New England Primer, "the textbook"

2.2.5. Visionaries:

2.2.5.1. Benjamin Franklin: called for a utilitarian study format

2.2.5.2. Thomas Jefferson: democracy was best with literacy. Called for free education for all in first few years of schooling

2.3. 18th Century Movement

2.3.1. 1751 The Franklin Academy

2.3.2. 1783 Webster's American Spelling Book

2.3.3. 1785 and '87 Land Ordinance Act and Northwest Ordinance

2.4. 19th Century Movement

2.4.1. 1821 Troy Female Seminary

2.4.2. 1821 First Public High School created in Boston, MA

2.4.3. 1837 Horace Mann pushes reform for complete public education

2.4.4. 1855 Kindergarden created

2.4.5. 1874 Kalamazoo Case establishes taxes for funding

2.4.6. 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson

2.5. 20th Century Movement

2.5.1. 1909 First Junior High Created

2.5.2. 1919 John Dewey and Progressivism

2.5.3. 1932 New Deal Education Programs (FDR)

2.5.4. 1944 G.I. Bill of Rights

2.5.5. 1954 Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, KS)

2.5.6. 1957 Sputnik pushes the U.S. towards math and science

2.5.7. 1964 Head Start and Lyndon Johnson

2.5.8. 1972 Title IX cuts out sexual discrimination

2.5.9. 1975 IDEA passed

2.5.10. 1979 Dept. of Ed established

2.5.11. 1983 A Nation at Risk

2.5.12. 2002 NCLB passed

2.6. Historical Interpretations

2.6.1. There are disagreements regarding equity, excellence, the social/intellectual functions of schools, and educational goals

2.6.1.1. Conservative views

2.6.1.2. Liberal views

2.6.1.3. Radical/Revisionist views

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Focus on the influence of schooling equity and opportunity for students.

3.2. Schools serve as "gatekeepers" of knowledge and skills; provide students with both economic and social worth in the world of employment.

3.3. Three Theories about Relationships Between Schools and Sociology:

3.3.1. Functional Theory

3.3.1.1. assess the interdependence of the social system; viewing society as a machine that makes society work

3.3.2. Interactional Theory

3.3.2.1. views interactions between students and students and their teacher and teachers

3.3.3. Conflict Theory

3.3.3.1. asserts that society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups

3.4. Sociological Influences of School

3.4.1. The Effects of Schooling Impact

3.4.1.1. Knowledge/attidtudes

3.4.1.2. Employment

3.4.1.3. Education

3.4.1.4. Social Mobility

3.5. Inadequate Schools

3.5.1. Inadequate schools usually share these 3 items in common:

3.5.1.1. 1) Overcrowding

3.5.1.2. 2) Poor Physical Condition of the Buildings

3.5.1.3. 3) Lack of Supplies/Materials for the teachers and students

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. FOCUS OF SCHOOLS

4.1.1. Schools are powerful organizations that profoundly affect the lives of those children and adults who come in contact with them. To understand education, one must look beyond the classroom itself and the interaction between teacher and student to the larger world where different interest groups compete with each other in terms of ideology, finances, and power.

4.2. School Processes

4.2.1. refer to the way in which school cultures are created and maintained

4.3. Decentralized school system

4.3.1. each state maintains its autonomy, authority, and responsibility regarding education. The federal gov't has very little input regarding individual schools.

4.4. Consolidation and Centralization of Schools

4.4.1. During the past 80 years, schools in the U.S. have consolidated so that education is more efficient and cost effective.

4.4.1.1. This however, makes schools less diverse, more bureaucratic, and less democratic.

4.5. Willard Waller asserted schools are separate social organizations due to 5 reasons...

4.5.1. 1) Schools have a definite population

4.5.2. 2) Schools have a clearly defined political structure

4.5.3. 3) Schools represent a central network of social relationships

4.5.4. 4) Schools are permeated with a "we" ideal rather than a "me" ideal"

4.5.5. 5) Schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school.

4.6. NCLB mandate a teacher be highly qualified in 3 ways...

4.6.1. 1) Hold a college degree

4.6.2. 2) Full certification in field of study

4.6.3. 3) Demonstrable knowledge of academic content in the field of study/certification.

4.7. Difference in Education between the U.S. and the World

4.7.1. Great Britain, France, Japan, Germany, and Finland all have highly governmental-centralized education. The U.S. avoids this.

4.7.2. Finland has the best Education ratings in the world. Japan, Great Britain, and Germany all place ahead of the U.S. at #17 in the World (Huffington Post, 2014)

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Traditional Appoaches

5.1.1. Views curriculum as objective bodies of knowledge and examine ways in which this knowledge may be designed, taught, and evaluated.

5.2. Current Approaches

5.2.1. Curriculum should be designed around goals and objectives and assess it in terms of student learning

5.3. Traditions in Pedagogic Practices

5.3.1. Mimetic Tradition- "tradtional"

5.3.2. Transformative Tradition- "change"

5.3.3. Dialectic Tradition- use of question and answer

5.4. Types of Curriculum

5.4.1. Humanist Cirriculum

5.4.2. Social Efficiency Cirriculum

5.4.3. Developmentalist Cirriculum

5.4.4. Social Meliorist Cirriculum

5.5. Sociology of Curriculum

5.5.1. Functionalist Theory - Curriculum gives students knowledge, language, values to ensure social stability

5.5.2. Conflict Theory- Curriculum serves as a reflection of ideology.

5.5.3. The use of Null, Hidden, and Mainstream curriculum.

5.6. Influences on Cirriculum

5.6.1. U.S. is influence by a Political Elite Model, where those who are elite have a more powerful voice

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Case Stratification

6.1.1. occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion

6.2. Estate Stratification

6.2.1. occurs in agrarian society where social level is defined in terms of hierarchy of family wealth

6.3. Class Stratification

6.3.1. occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, esp. in economic pursuits

6.4. What is an achievement gap?

6.4.1. It's a observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students.

6.5. Coleman Report

6.5.1. Studied educational opportunity

6.5.2. Was often misinterpreted as an argument that schools don't matter, only families.

6.5.3. He did a subsequent work that was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools which did matter, so that the impact of school relative to that of family could be increased.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. The Functionalist View

7.1.1. Individual talent and hard work are based on univeral principles of evaluation

7.2. Conflict Theory

7.2.1. believes the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality. Family background plays big role.

7.3. Interactionist Theory

7.3.1. suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as family or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success of failure

7.4. Student Centered Explanations

7.4.1. Genetic or Biological Differences Theory

7.4.2. Cultural Difference Theories

7.4.3. Cultural Deprivation Theories

7.5. Characteristics of Effective Schools

7.5.1. High expectations

7.5.2. Strong, effective leaderships by school administration

7.5.3. Accountability processes for both students and teachers

7.5.4. Close monitoring of student learning

7.5.5. A high degree of instructional time on task

7.5.6. Flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems

8. Educational Reform

8.1. A Nation at Risk

8.1.1. Focused on what deficiencies of schools were

8.1.2. This was the first wave of educational reform in the U.S.

8.2. A Nation Prepared: Teachers for a 21st Century

8.2.1. Teacher Education Programs need to be more rigorous in their schooling

8.2.2. Reorganization of academic and professional components of TEPs

8.3. Goals 2000

8.3.1. Had 6 goals

8.3.1.1. 1: Children will start school ready to learn

8.3.1.2. 2: Graduation rate will jump to 90%

8.3.1.3. 3: Grades 4,8,12 will show competency to translate into the national economy and society

8.3.1.4. 4: U.S. will be first in math and science

8.3.1.5. 5: Adults will be literate

8.3.1.6. 6: Drugs and violence will not be in schools

8.3.2. This did not work well

8.4. No Child Left Behind

8.4.1. Had annual testing

8.4.2. States/districts are required to report school by school data on test performance

8.4.3. Schools had to meet AYP

8.4.4. Pushed acquiring "highly qualified teachers"

8.5. Suggestions for educational refrom

8.5.1. Adopt standards and assessments

8.5.2. Improve instruction by building data systems to measure student growth

8.5.3. Recruit, develop, reward, and retain effective teachers and principals

8.5.4. Turn around the lowest-achieving schools

9. Philosophy of Education

9.1. Teacher-Led

9.1.1. Realism

9.1.1.1. Back to the Basics

9.1.1.2. Direct Instruction

9.1.1.3. Orderly Classsroom environment

9.1.1.4. Empirical POV

9.1.1.5. Tabula Rasa or "blank slate"

9.1.1.6. Focus on Core Curriculum

9.1.1.7. Theorists: Bagley and Hirsch

9.1.2. Idealism

9.1.2.1. Focus on Classic Literature

9.1.2.2. No Textbooks

9.1.2.3. Electives are unnecessary

9.1.2.4. Theorists: Hutchins and Adler

9.2. Student-Led

9.2.1. Liberal

9.2.1.1. Pragmatism

9.2.1.1.1. Inquiry-method of learning

9.2.1.1.2. Group/Collaborative Learning

9.2.1.1.3. Project based learning

9.2.1.1.4. Learn by doing

9.2.1.1.5. Teachers facilitate

9.2.1.1.6. Uses Pragmatism

9.2.1.1.7. Theorists: Dewey and Noddings

9.2.2. Radical

9.2.2.1. Neo-Marxism

9.2.2.1.1. Create Social Awareness

9.2.2.1.2. Focus is all on society

9.2.2.1.3. Create problem solvers

9.2.2.1.4. Flexible and integrated curriculum

9.2.2.1.5. Theorists: Count and Friere

9.2.2.2. Existentialism

9.2.2.2.1. Shuns traditional curriculum

9.2.2.2.2. Promotes individuality and introspection

9.2.2.2.3. Students grade themselves

9.2.2.2.4. Students choose own pace of learning

9.2.2.2.5. Phenomenology

9.2.2.2.6. Hermeneutics

9.2.2.2.7. Theorist: Greene

10. Foundations of Education

10.1. 4 Main Problems:

10.1.1. Acheivement Gaps

10.1.1.1. These are based on social class, race/ethnicity, and gender

10.1.2. Crisis in Urban Education

10.1.2.1. This includes inequity in school financing and staffing crisis

10.1.3. Decline in Literacy

10.1.3.1. Trying to solve by adoption of nat'l standards (Common Core), balancing higher standards, and development of core cirriculum

10.1.4. Assessment Issues

10.1.4.1. "Is the 'high-stakes' testing an accurate assessment of learning and achievement?"