ED 302-12176

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ED 302-12176 by Mind Map: ED 302-12176

1. Foundations of Education

1.1. Four Issues in Education

1.1.1. Poverty in Scools

1.1.2. Reduction in Literacy

1.1.3. Assessment Issues High Stakes Testing

1.1.4. School Funding

2. Philosophy in Education

2.1. Philosophy, when applied to education, allows teachers to apply systematic approaches to solving problems in schools and also helps put a spotlight on relationship issues between schools and social order.

2.2. 5 philosophies of education

2.2.1. realism (essentialism)- Teacher led classroom Traditional Back to the Basics (Reading, Writing, Math) Direct instruction Orderly classroom environment Theorists: William Bagley & E.D. Hirsch. The essentialist classroom focuses on the “core curriculum” which includes math, science, history, foreign language and literature.

2.2.2. Idealism (perennialistism)- follows the “Great Books” – works written by history’s greatest thinkers; books as meaningful today as when they were written (the Bible, the Iliad and the Odyssey, etc). Few, if no textbooks are used in a perennialist classroom. Robert Hutchins opined that textbooks “have probably done as much to degrade the American intelligence as any single force”.

2.2.3. pragmatisism (progressvism)- Student led classroom Inquiry method of learning Group/collaborative learning Learning by doing Project based learning Theorists: John Dewey and Nel Noddings Progressive teachers facilitate learning by helping students formulate meaningful questions and devise strategies to derive answers. Pragmatism is used in the theory of progressivism in that pragmatism practices the art of determining whether an idea has merit by testing it to real world standards.

2.2.4. neo-marxism (social reconstruction)- Student led classrooms Focus is on bettering society Flexible, integrated curriculum Social awareness Creates problem solvers Theorists: George S. Counts and Paulo Friere Social Reconstructionism focuses on flexible, integrated study of academic subjects with the purpose of students becoming socially aware, intelligent problem solvers.

2.2.5. existentialism-Student led classroom Students choose own pace of learning Students grade/evaluate themselves Shuns traditional curriculum Individuality and introspection Theorists: Maxine Greene & A.S. Neill Existentialism asserts that the purpose of education is to help students find the meaning of their lives, and it rejects he assertion that adults should direct meaningful learning for children. Existentialism promotes the idea that each student determine their own pace and direction of learning. Students study what they wish to study, and students also evaluate their own performance.

2.3. Scaffolding refers to teachers using questions, clues, or suggestions that help students link prior knowledge to new information.

2.4. Constructivism focuses on how a learner constructs new knowledge (learns) from receiving information. Constructivism asserts that knowledge cannot be handed from a teacher to a learner, rather, it must be constructed by each learner through interpreting and reinterpreting a constant flow of information.

2.5. Behaviorism is derived from the belief that free will is an illusion and that human beings are shaped entirely by their environment. (ie. change a person’s environment, and you will alter their thoughts, feelings, and behavior). B.F. Skinner did much to popularize the use of behavior modification which uses extrinsic rewards that are gradually lessened as the student acquires and masters targeted behavior (ie. behavior modification).

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Purpose: to instill patriotism, prepare citizens who will assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order and to teach children the basic laws of society.

3.2. Conseravative

3.3. Liberal

3.3.1. Concerened with equality and balancing the econmic productivity of captilism with the social and economic needs

3.3.2. Maintains view of U.S. society, but with reservations. Liberals believe without government intervention, capitalism creates far too much political and economic disparity between citizens.

3.3.3. schools limit the chances of poor and minority children, schools place too much emphasis on sicipline and authority, and traditional curriculum disregards diverse cultures in society.

3.3.4. support quality with equality, effective research, enhanced opportunties for disadvantaged groups, a more culturally diverse curriculum, and a balance between performance standards and ensuring students can meet them.

3.4. Radical

3.5. Neo-Liberal

4. Sociology in Education

4.1. Purpose: sociological inquiry is to focus on the influence of schooling on equity and opportunity for students.

4.1.1. Purpose: school serves as "gatekeeper" of knowledge and skills, and hence provide with both economic and social worth in the world of employment.

4.2. 3 Majors Theories about the relationships between schools and sociology

4.2.1. Functional Theories- functional sociologist assess the interdependence of the social system; viewing society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work.

4.2.2. Interactional theories- interractional sociologists take a up close view of the interactions between students/ students and teacher/ teachers.

4.2.3. Conflict Theories- conflict socoiologists assert that society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on suborinant groups (i.e. the glue of society is economic, cultural, and political).

4.3. Sociological Influence of School

4.3.1. The effects of schooling impact: knowledge/attitudes, employment, education, and social mobility

4.3.2. Tracking- in a tracking system, the entire school population is assigned to classes according to whether the students' overall achievement is above average, normal, or below average.

4.3.3. De Facto Segregation- racial segregation, especially in puplic schools, that happens "by fact" rather than by legal requirement.

4.3.4. Schools reinforce larger cultural messages about gender including the idea that gender is an essential characteristic for organizing social life.

5. History in U.S. Education

5.1. School Funding

5.1.1. 1785 Land Ordinance Act

5.1.2. 1787 Northwest Ordinance

5.1.3. Current school funding comes from state funds, local sales tax, property tax, and a small portion from the federal government

5.2. 1821 first public high school

5.3. 1855 first kindergarden in the U. S.

5.4. 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson

5.4.1. separate but equal

5.5. 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education

5.5.1. overturn seperate but equal

5.5.2. desegregated schools

5.6. 1972 Title IX

5.6.1. no discrimination based on sex

5.7. 1975 Individuals with disabilities education act

5.8. 1983 A Nation at Risk

5.8.1. a report of Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education

5.9. 2002 No Child Left Behind

5.9.1. increased school accountability

6. Sociological Perspective

7. Schools as Organization

7.1. school process refer to the way in which school cultures are created and maintained

7.2. decentralized school system- each state maintains its autonomy, authority, and responsibility regarding education. feds have very little say in what individual schools teach

7.3. consolidation and cenralized of schools- durning the past 80 years schools in the U. S. have consolidated so that education is more efficient and cost effective

7.4. many times the concentration of minorities in certain neighborhoods produces neighborhood schools that predoninantly minority, or segrated in fact (de facto), although not by law (de jure).

7.5. willard waller asserted that schools are seperate social organizations due to:

7.5.1. schools have a definite population

7.5.2. schools have a clearly defined political structure

7.5.3. schools repersent a central network of social relationships

7.5.4. schools are permeated with a "we" ideal rather than a "me" ideal

7.5.5. schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school

7.6. max weber- bureaucracies- endeavor to organize human behavior in order to achieve specific goals

7.7. no child left behind act mandates that teachers must be highly qualified through meeting 3 qualifications

7.7.1. hold a college degree

7.7.2. full certification in field of study

7.7.3. demonstrate knowledge of academic content in the field of study/certification


8. Curriculum and Pedagogy

8.1. traditional approaches view curriculum as objective bodies of knowledge and examine ways in which this knowledge may be designed, taught, and evaluated

8.2. current approaches to curriculum focus on designing curriculum around goals and objectives, and it in terms of student learning

8.3. Four types of Curriculum

8.3.1. humanist curriculum is based from the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society

8.3.2. social efficiency curriculum is pragmatic/progressive in nature, with a belief that different groups of students have different needs, and should receive different types of education to meet those specific needs.

8.3.3. developmentalist curriculum is also based on progressive educational practices. john dewey and jean piaget emphasized the importance of the process of teaching along with the curricular content.

8.3.4. social meriorist curriculum is based on the social reconstructionist theory that schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems

8.4. influences and curriculum

8.4.1. pluralist model of political power: argues that the political system in the U.S is not controlled by any one influence and control

8.4.2. political elite model: argues that a small number of powerful groups dominate the political landscape and have disproportionate control over decision making

8.5. the sociology of curriculum

8.5.1. functionalist theory: the role of curriculum is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability, to further the common social order

8.5.2. conflict theory: conflict theorist believe curriculum is a reflection of ideology; they do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect (i.e. hidden curriculum)

8.5.3. the "hidden curriculum" includes norms which are taught to students through implicit rules and messages, but is not written in the official curriculum

8.5.4. the "null curriculum" is the curriculum is the curriculum that is specifically omitted from being taught in schools

8.6. tradtitions and pedagogic practices

8.6.1. mimetic tradition is based on the view that the purpose of education is to relay specific knowledge to students

8.6.2. transformative tradition views the purpose of education as having the ability to change each student in a meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually and emotionally

8.6.3. dialectic teaching is the means of communications in this approach to curriculum, with the use of questioning and question/answers sessions as the main vehicle to transmit knowledge

9. Equality of Opportunity

9.1. caste stratification- occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion

9.2. Estate stratification- occurs agrarian in societies where the social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth

9.3. class stratification- occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits

9.4. social stratification in the U.S.

9.4.1. upper class: 1-3%

9.4.2. upper middle class: 15%

9.4.3. lower middle class: 25%

9.4.4. working class: 40%

9.4.5. underclass/lower class: 20%

9.5. achievement gap refers to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measure between the performance of groups of students (especially groups defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity or gender)

9.6. females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13, and 17 but achieve at lower levels in science at ages 9, 13, and 17. this is an example of sociological research that illustrates the impact of achievement gaps in schools on equal educational opportunties

9.7. the coleman report

9.7.1. an influential and contraversial study, the coleman report was based on the extensive survey of educational opportunity (the national sample includes almost 650,00 students and teachers in more than 3000 schools), was mandated in the civil rights act of 1964, and directed by the sociologist james coleman

9.7.2. coleman's work was often misinterpreted as an argument that schools don't matter, only families matter

9.7.3. coleman's subsequent work was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools which did matter so that the impact of school relative to that of family could be increased

10. Educational Inequality

10.1. the fuctionlist vision of a "just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principals of evaluations

10.1.1. functionlist expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on froup differences

10.2. conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality (this assertion is consistent with data that shows educational outcomes that are strongly linked to family background)

10.3. interactionlist theory suggest that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure

10.3.1. student centered or extra- school explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups and the individual student

10.3.2. school centered or within-school explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate and teacher expectations

10.4. genetic or biological differences theory- born dumb or smart and cant get out of that

10.5. cultural deprevation theories- low socioeconomic students are at a disadvantage

10.6. cultural difference theories

10.7. characterstics of effective schools

10.7.1. high expectations for students by teachers and adminstators

10.7.2. strong, effective leadership by school administration

10.7.3. accountability processes for both students and teachers

10.7.4. close monitoring of student learning

10.7.5. a high degree of instructional time on task

10.7.6. flexablity for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems

11. Educational Reform

11.1. a nation at risk

11.1.1. the first wave of education reform in the united states stressed the need for increased educational excellence through increased educational standards the need for excellence and equaity in schools the need to clarify educational goals the need to develop a common core curriculum the need to eliminate tracking programs the need for major changes in vocational education the need for education to teach about technology the need to increase duration and intensity of academic learning the need to recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers

11.2. second wave of reform was based on the recommendations made at the state governor's conference. the reform focused

11.2.1. teaching, leadership and management

11.2.2. parental involvement and choice in schools

11.2.3. student readiness for school (for preschoolers)

11.2.4. school facilities being fully utilized

11.2.5. quality colleges and accountability for learning

11.3. the Carnegie report entitled a nation prepared: teachers for a 21st century focused on the educational quality of teacher education programs. it asserted

11.3.1. teachers education programs lacked rigor and intellectual demands which would negatively impact success and student achievement in schools

11.3.2. the necessity to recognize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs

11.3.3. the need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates

11.4. goals 2000

11.4.1. goal 1: all children will start school ready to learn

11.4.2. goal 2: high school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%

11.4.3. goal 3: American students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so that they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy

11.4.4. goal 4: u. s. students will be first in the world in math and science achievement

11.4.5. goal 5: every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy

11.4.6. goal 6: every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conductive to learning

11.5. no child left behind

11.5.1. annual testing required of students in grades 3 through 8 in reading and math, plus at least one test in grades 10 through 12 with science testing

11.5.2. states and districts are required to report school by school data on student test performance, broken out by whether the student is African American, Hispanic American, native American, Asian American, white non-Hispanic, special education, limited English proficiency, and/or low income

11.5.3. states must set adequate yearly process (AYP) goals for each student

11.5.4. schools must have "highly qualified teachers" for teachers on the core academic subjects

11.6. race to the top

11.6.1. adopting standards and assessment that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in the global economy

11.6.2. building data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals

11.6.3. turning around the lowest- achieving schools