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ED 302 by Mind Map: ED 302

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Realism

1.1.1. Teacher-led/traditional

1.1.2. Basics/Core curriculum

1.1.3. Direct instruction/orderly

1.1.4. Bagley & Hirsch

1.1.5. Kids are "blank slates"

1.2. Idealism

1.2.1. Teacher-led/traditional

1.2.2. Classic literature/no textbooks

1.2.3. Electives are unnecessary

1.2.4. Hutchins & Adler

1.3. Pragmatism

1.3.1. Student-led/ teacher is facilitator

1.3.2. Inquiry method of learning

1.3.3. Group/collaborative

1.3.4. Project-based/hands-on

1.3.5. Dewey & Noddings

1.4. Neo-Marxism

1.4.1. Student-led

1.4.2. Social reconstruction/bettering society

1.4.3. Flexible with curriculum

1.4.4. Freire

1.5. Existentialism

1.5.1. Student-led

1.5.2. Students choose pace

1.5.3. Students grade/evaluate themselves

1.5.4. Shuns traditional curriculum

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Conservative

2.1.1. Believe that students can achieve according to what they put in their work.

2.1.2. More traditional than other parties.

2.1.3. Believe teachers are here to aid in education.

2.1.4. Return to basics, return to traditional curriculum, and accountability.

2.1.5. Decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, and decline of authority

2.1.6. Believe in free market and it is the most productive economic system

2.2. Liberal

2.3. Radical

2.4. Neo-Liberal

3. Foundations of Education

3.1. 4 Issues in Education

3.1.1. Reduction in Literacy

3.1.2. Poverty in Schools

3.1.3. Assessment Issues

3.1.4. School Funding

4. Sociology in Education

4.1. Functional Theory

4.1.1. Access the interdependence of the social system

4.1.2. Society is a whole that works together due to separate parts

4.2. Interactional Theory

4.2.1. Takes a close look at the interactions between students & students and teachers & teachers

4.2.2. Approach to questions about social cognition focusing on behavior and environmental contexts

4.3. Social Conflict Theory

4.3.1. Society is not held together by shared values alone, but on ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups

4.3.2. Marxist-based theory; social classes have different materials and non-material resources

5. History of Education

5.1. Important Acts

5.1.1. Plessy vs. Ferguson - "separate but equal"

5.1.2. No Child Left Behind - every child could achieve according to standardized tests & yearly progress

5.1.3. New Deal - Roosevelt education programs

5.1.4. G. I. Bill of Rights - soldiers can get free schooling

5.1.5. Brown vs. Board of Education - separate was NOT equal

5.1.6. Kalamazoo - use of taxes to fund public schools

5.2. Schools

5.2.1. Kindergarten - 1855

5.2.2. Female seminary - 1821

5.2.3. High School - 1821

5.2.4. Junior High - 1909

5.2.5. Harvard College - 1636

5.3. People

5.3.1. Horace Mann - "normal schools"

5.3.2. G. Stanley Hall - development of child psychology

5.3.3. Margaretha Schurtz - kindergarten

5.3.4. Ben Franklin - secular schooling & Franklin Academy

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. Countries

6.1.1. Finland: highest educated country; formative assessment; rigorous teaching programs

6.1.2. Great Britain: 5 stages of education; highly centralized national curriculum & system of national assessment

6.1.3. Japan: Double Schooling - includes 2 sets of educational systems, traditional & informal schools

6.1.4. Germany: sorts children & racks them; 3 educational system: Blue collar, White collar, & Academic preparation

6.1.5. France: government controls classrooms; highly stratified with 2 public systems, one for ordinary systems & elite society

6.2. Systems

6.2.1. Decentralized system: each state maintains autonomy, authority, & responsibility

6.2.2. Consolidation: education is more efficient & cost-effective

6.2.3. Schools are separate social organizations due to many factors

6.2.4. No Child Left Behind requires 3 qualifications: college degree, full certification in field, & demonstrable knowledge of academic content

7. Curriculum & Pedagogy

7.1. 4 Types of Curriculum

7.1.1. Humanist: idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as basis of educated society

7.1.2. Social Efficiency: progressive in nature; different students have different needs

7.1.3. Developmentalist: progressive; philosophers knew importance of process of teaching along with curricular content, which includes needs & interests of each individual child at each different developmental stage

7.1.4. Social Meliorist: curriculum based on social reconstructionist; school should work to change society & help solve fundamental social problems

7.2. Influences

7.2.1. Pluralist Model: political system in U.S. is not controlled by any 1 influence

7.2.2. Political Elite Model: small number of powerful groups dominate political landscape & have disproportionate control over decision making

7.3. Traditions

7.3.1. Mimetic: based on view of purpose of education is to relay specific knowledge to students; uses didactic method of teaching

7.3.2. Transformative: views purpose of education as having ability to change each student in a meaningful way

7.3.3. Dialectic: means of communication; uses questioning & question/answer sessions as main vehicle to transmit knowledge

7.4. Sociology of Curriculum

7.4.1. Functionalist Theory: role of curriculum is to give students knowledge, language, & values to insure social stability

7.4.2. "Hidden Curriculum": lessons taught that are not specified in actual curriculum. Ex: treat others kindly, tie shoes, manners, etc.

7.4.3. "Null Curriculum": lessons that are omitted from curriculum. Ex: Columbus Day - sugar-coated rather than what actually happened

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Stratifications

8.1.1. Caste: agrarian societies where social level is defined by strict criteria

8.1.2. Estate: societies where social level is defined by family worth

8.1.3. Class: industrial societies that define social level by different achievement

8.2. Stats

8.2.1. The U.S. is separated by class stratification

8.2.2. Working class makes up about 40% of society

8.2.3. Achievement gap refers to educational measures between different groups of students

8.3. Coleman Report

8.3.1. Based on extensive survey of educational opportunity

8.3.2. James Coleman

8.3.3. Mandated in the Civil Rights Act

8.3.4. Initially schools do not matter; however, after further study, schools DO matter

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Theories

9.1.1. Functionalists: expect the process of schooling will have unequal results; individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation

9.1.2. Conflicts: the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality

9.1.3. Interactionalists: student-centered & school-centered; we must understand how people within institutions interact on a daily basis

9.2. Educational Inequality

9.2.1. Genetic/Biological Differences

9.2.2. Cultural Deprivation

9.2.3. Cultural Differences

9.2.4. School Financing

9.2.5. School Climate

9.2.6. Teaching Practices

9.3. Effective Schools

9.3.1. High Expectations*

9.3.2. Effective Leadership

9.3.3. Accountability

9.3.4. Monitor Student Learning

9.3.5. Instructional Time on Task

9.3.6. Teacher Flexibility

10. Educational Reform

10.1. Nation at Risk

10.1.1. Need for excellence, equity, clarify educational goals, Common Core curriculum

10.1.2. Eliminate tracking programs, technology integration, academically able teachers

10.2. Goals 2000

10.2.1. Students ready to learn, high school graduation increase

10.2.2. 1st in math & science, every school drug & violence free

10.3. No Child Left Behind

10.3.1. Annual testing, Adequate Yearly Progress

10.3.2. Highly qualified teachers, "In Need of Improvement"