ED 302 Important Information

History, Sociology, Philosophy, & Politics of Education/Four Main Educational Problems Schools as Organizations Curriculum, Pedagogy, Transmission of Knowledge, Explanations of Education, Educational Reform, Equality of Opportunities, etc.

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ED 302 Important Information by Mind Map: ED 302 Important Information

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Realism (Essentialism)

1.1.1. teacher-led

1.1.2. back to the basics (traditional)

1.1.3. orderly classroom

1.2. Idealism (Perennialism)

1.2.1. teacher-led

1.2.2. no textbooks

1.2.3. "Great Books" (Bible, Iliad, etc.)

1.2.4. electives unnecessary

1.3. Pragmatism (Progressivism)

1.3.1. student-led

1.3.2. group/collaborative learning

1.3.3. project-based (learning by doing)

1.4. Neo-Marxism (Social-Reconstruction)

1.4.1. student-led

1.4.2. focus on bettering society

1.4.3. creates problem solvers

1.5. Existentialism

1.5.1. student-led (students choose their own pace)

1.5.2. shuns traditional curriculum

1.5.3. individuality & introspection

2. Sociology of Education

2.1. Major Theories

2.1.1. Functional: society is a machine (one part works with another)

2.1.2. Interactional: up close view of the interactions between students/teachers

2.1.3. Conflict: society not held together by shared values alone

2.2. Effects of Schooling Impact

2.2.1. knowledge/attitude

2.2.2. employment

2.2.3. education

2.2.4. social mobility

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Conservative

3.1.1. Individual achievement is determined by intelligence, hard work, and initiative.

3.1.2. Individual progress is dependent on an individual's hard work and initiative.

3.1.3. Schools' roles are to provide educational training to ensure students' talents and hard work is recognized and rewarded with tools to thrive in a society.

3.1.4. Back to the Basics traditional curriculum Decline of standards, cultural literacy, values and authority. dates back to the 1800's

4. History of Education

4.1. 17th Century Education

4.1.1. Boston Latin Grammar School established in 1635.

4.1.2. Harvard College established in 1636.

4.1.3. "The textbook", the first reading textbook for American Colonies was the New England Primer. (foundation of most of education until the 1890s).

4.1.4. Jefferson proposed a bill for free education for all children for the 1st three years of elementary school.

4.2. 18th Century Education

4.2.1. Franklin Academy opened in 1751 in Philadephia This academy was opened for Ben Franklin favored education stressing practical skills for future professions.

4.2.2. Noah Webster's American Spelling book published in 1783. (Webster's Dictionary)

4.2.3. Land Ordinance/Northwest Ordinance Acts each town must have a school and must have to pay for the school (property taxes)

4.3. 19th Century Education

4.3.1. Emma Willard's Troy Female seminary opens. (1st secondary school for girls)

4.3.2. 1821-First Public High School opens in Boston (more like a trade school back then)

4.3.3. The Cases: Plessy v. Ferguson-"separate but equal" Kalamazoo: established the use of taxes to fund public schools

4.3.4. John Dewey: Father of Progressivism

4.4. 20th Century Education

4.4.1. Roosevelt's New Deal Education Programs-1932

4.4.2. Sputnik leads to increase in federal education funds

4.4.3. Brown v. Board of Education: overturned Plessy v. Ferguson/segregation in other public forums unconstitutional.

4.4.4. A Nation at Risk/No Child Left Behind Act law passed

5. Four Main Educational Problems

5.1. Crisis in Urban Education

5.1.1. inequality in school funding

5.1.2. staffing crisis

5.2. Battling a Decline in Literacy

5.2.1. adoption of national standards (Common Core)

5.2.2. balancing higher standards

5.2.3. development of core curriculum

5.3. Assessment Issues

5.3.1. the question of whether high stakes testing is an accurate assessment of student learning/achievement

5.4. Achievement Gap

5.4.1. based on social class, ethnicity/race, & gender

6. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. Types of Curriculum

6.1.1. Humanist: (idealist philosophy) present the students the best of what has ever been thought/written

6.1.2. Social Efficiency: (pragmatic/progressive) different groups of students have different needs-different types of education

6.1.3. Developmentalist: (progressive) importance of the process of teaching along with curriculum Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

6.1.4. Social Meliorist: (social reconstructionist) schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems

6.2. Additional Types of Curriculum

6.2.1. "Hidden": norms taught through implicit rules and messages-not official curriculum

6.2.2. "Null": curriculum specifically omitted from being taught in schools

6.3. Traditions in Pedagogic Practices

6.3.1. Mimetic: uses didactic method of teaching (lectures, presentations)

6.3.2. Transformative: having the ability to change each student in a meaningful way

6.3.3. Dialectic: questioning and question/answer sessions as the main vehicle to transmit knowledge

7. Schools as Organizations

7.1. Decentralized Schools

7.1.1. Each state maintains its autonomy, authority, and responsibility regarding education; government has little input

7.2. Centralized Schools

7.2.1. US has consolidated past 80 years so education is more efficient and cost effective

7.2.2. One negative impact is schools have become less diverse, more bureaucratic, & less democratic

7.3. Waller's assertion of why schools are separate social organizations

7.3.1. Schools have a definite population

7.3.2. Schools have a clearly defined political structure

7.3.3. Schools represent a network of social relationships

7.3.4. Schools are permeated with a "we" ideal rather than a "me" ideal

7.3.5. Schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school

7.4. Additional Info

7.4.1. No Child Left Behind Act mandates teachers must be highly qualified through meeting 3 qualifications Hold a college degree Full certification in field of study Demonstrable knowledge of academic content in the field of study/certification

7.4.2. Racial segregation which happens "by fact" rather than by legal requirement is considered de facto segregation

8. Equality of Opportunities for Educational Outcomes

8.1. Different Types of Stratifications

8.1.1. Caste: (farming) social lever is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race/religion.

8.1.2. Class: occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of hierarchy of differential achievement

8.1.3. Estate: (Britain's king/queen) social level is defined in terms of hierarchy of family worth

8.2. The Coleman Report

8.2.1. based on an extensive survey of educational opportunity directed by sociologist James Coleman

8.2.2. misinterpreted as argument 'schools don't matter, only families matter'

8.2.3. His work was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools which did matter so the impact of school relative to that of family could be increased

8.3. Achievement Gap

8.3.1. refers to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students (especially groups defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity or gender)

9. Explanations of Educational Inequality

9.1. 3 Controversial Theories

9.1.1. Genetic/Biological Differences either born dumb or smart

9.1.2. Cultural Deprivation don't have the "extra's" needed

9.1.3. Cultural Difference 1-African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class structure 2-Working class and non-white students are viewed as resisting the dominant culture of schools 3-Asian Americans possess family values that place great emphasis on educational achievement along with high expectations for children

9.2. Characteristics of Effective Schools

9.2.1. High expectations for students by teachers and administrators

9.2.2. Strong, effective leadership by school administration

9.2.3. Accountability processes for both students and teachers

9.2.4. A high degree of instructional time on task

9.2.5. Flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems

9.3. Additional Theories

9.3.1. Functionalist vision of a "just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation

9.3.2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality

9.3.3. Interactionist theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as explaining academic success or failure Student Centered/Extra-School explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups and the individual student School Centered/Within-School explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate and teacher expectations

10. Educational Reform and School Improvement

10.1. Wave 1: A Nation at Risk

10.1.1. The need for excellence and equity in schools

10.1.2. The need to clarify educational goals

10.1.3. The need to develop a common core curriculum

10.1.4. The need to eliminate tracking programs

10.1.5. The need for major changes in vocational education

10.1.6. The need for education to teach about technology

10.1.7. The need to increase duration and intensity of academic learning

10.1.8. The needs to recruit, train, and retrain more academically able teachers

10.2. Wave 2: State Governor's Conference Recommendations

10.2.1. Teaching, leadership, and management

10.2.2. Parental involvement and choice in schools

10.2.3. Student readiness for school (preschool)

10.2.4. School facilities being utilized

10.2.5. Quality colleges and accountability for learning

10.3. Goals 2000

10.3.1. All children will start school ready to learn

10.3.2. High school graduation rates will increase at least 90%

10.3.3. American students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy

10.3.4. U.S. students will be first in the world in math and science achievement

10.3.5. Every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy

10.4. No Child Left Behind

10.4.1. Annual testing required of students in grades 3-8 in reading and math and at least one test in grades 10-12 with science testing.

10.4.2. States must set adequate yearly progress goals for each school

10.4.3. Schools must have "highly qualified teachers" for teachers in the core academic subjects