My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Perspectives

1.1.1. 1. Conservative

1.1.1.1. Individuals and groups must compete in the social environment in order to survive, and human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive.

1.1.2. 3. Radical

1.1.2.1. Suggests that the capitalist system also produces fundamental contradictions that ultimately will lead to its transformation into socialism.

1.1.2.2. 2. Liberal

1.1.2.2.1. Believes that the free market, if left unregulated, is prone to significant abuses, particularly to those groups who are disadvantaged economically and politically.

1.1.3. 4. Neo-liberal

1.1.3.1. Synthesis of conservative and liberal perspectives where reformers have critiqued failing urban public schools and attribute their failures to teacher unions and their support of teacher tenure and layoffs based on seniority and the absence of student, teacher and school accountability to ensure improvement.

1.2. Visions

1.2.1. Traditional

1.2.1.1. View the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society, such as hard work, family unity, individual initiative, etc.

1.2.2. Progressive

1.2.2.1. View schools as central to solving social problems, as a vehicle for upward mobility, as essential to the development of individual potential, and as an integral part of a democratic society.

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. Relationship between school and society

2.1.1. 1. Theoretical Theories

2.1.1.1. Stresses the interdependence of the social system for society.

2.1.2. 2. Conflict Theories

2.1.2.1. Social order is based on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation and manipulation.

2.1.3. 3. Interactional Theories

2.1.3.1. Attempt to make the schools strange by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and students and between students and teachers.

2.2. Three effects of schooling on individuals

2.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes

2.2.1.1. Differences in school are directly related to differences in student outcomes.

2.2.2. 2. Employment

2.2.2.1. College will lead to greater employment opportunities, which is required for white-collar, managerial, or administrative jobs.

2.2.3. 3. Education and Mobility

2.2.3.1. Education is the great equalizer in the "great status race." More education leads to economic and social mobility; individuals rise and fall based on merit.

3. •Philosophy of Education

3.1. Idealism

3.1.1. Generic Notions

3.1.1.1. Plato used the dialectic approach to move individuals from the world of matter to the world of ideas.

3.1.2. Key Researchers

3.1.2.1. Socrates

3.1.2.2. Plato

3.1.3. Goal of Education

3.1.3.1. Search for truth through idea rather than through the examination of the false shadowy world of matter.

3.1.4. Role of Teachers

3.1.4.1. It is the teacher's responsibility to analyze and discuss ideas with students in order for students to move to new levels of awareness.

3.1.5. Curriculum

3.1.5.1. study of classics; contemporary problems have roots in the past to be examined to know how previous individuals dealt with them.

3.1.6. Method of Instruction

3.1.6.1. active learning by using dialectic approach (questioning).

3.2. Realism

3.2.1. Generic Notions

3.2.1.1. Rejects that only ideas are real and argue that the material world or matter is real.

3.2.2. Key Researchers

3.2.2.1. Plato and Aristotle

3.2.3. Goal of Education

3.2.3.1. Help individuals understand and then apply the principles of science to help solve the problems plaguing the modern world.

3.2.4. Role of Teachers

3.2.4.1. should be steeped int he basic academic disciplines in order to transmit to their students the knowledge necessary for the continuance of the human race.

3.2.5. Curriculum

3.2.5.1. science, math, reading, writing and the humanities.

3.2.6. Method of Instruction

3.2.6.1. lecture, question and answer

3.3. Pragmatism

3.3.1. Generic Notions

3.3.1.1. influenced by the theory of evolution

3.3.2. Key Researchers

3.3.2.1. John Dewey, William James, Sanders Peirce

3.3.3. Goal of Education

3.3.3.1. philosophy had a responsibility to society and that ideas required laboratory testing

3.3.4. Role of Teachers

3.3.4.1. not to be the authoritarian figure

3.3.5. Method of Instruction

3.3.5.1. problem solving or inquiry method

3.4. Existentialism and Phenoenology

3.4.1. Generic Notions

3.4.1.1. Existentialists pose how concerns impact individual's lives; phenomenology focuses on consciousness, perception, and meaning of individual's experience.

3.4.2. Key Researchers

3.4.2.1. Kierkegaard, Husserl, Merleau-Ponty

3.4.3. Goal of Education

3.4.3.1. needs of individuals, both cognitively and affectively

3.4.4. Role of Teachers

3.4.4.1. Teachers understand their world and student's world

3.4.5. Curriculum

3.4.5.1. humanities

3.5. Neo-Marxism

3.5.1. Generic Notions

3.5.1.1. communism, foundation for a radical critique of capitalism throughout the 20th century.

3.5.2. Key Researchers

3.5.2.1. Karl Marx

3.5.3. Goal of Education

3.5.3.1. reproduction and resistance theories

3.5.4. Role of Teachers

3.5.4.1. engage students in critical examination of the world

3.5.5. Curriculum

3.5.5.1. socially constructed; those in power shape what they want children to know

3.6. Postmodernist and Critical Theory

3.6.1. Generic Notions

3.6.1.1. developed out of a dissatisfaction with modernism

3.6.2. Key Researchers

3.6.2.1. Karl Marx, Derrida, Baudrillard

3.6.3. Role of Teachers

3.6.3.1. agents of change

3.6.4. Curriculum

3.6.4.1. new forms of knowledge rooted in pluralistic and democratic vision of society

3.6.5. Method of Instruction

3.6.5.1. students need to understand the social construction of different voices and identities

4. Curriculum & Pedagogy

4.1. Historical Curriculum Theory

4.1.1. 1. humanist curriculum- idealist philosophy

4.1.2. 2. social efficiency curriculum- development response to mass public secondary education

4.1.3. 3. developmentalist curriculum- needs and interests of the student rather than needs of society.

4.2. Sociological Curriculum Theory

4.2.1. 1. Focuses on the function of what is taught in schools and its relationship to the role of schools within society.

4.2.2. 2. Functionalists argue that curriculum represents the codification of the knowledge that students need to become competent members of society.

4.2.3. 3. Emphasizes hidden curriculum, what is taught to students through implicit rules and messages, as well as what is left out of the formal curriculum.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Governance

5.1.1. Senators

5.1.2. House of Representatives

5.1.3. State Senate

5.1.4. State School Board Representatives

5.1.5. Local Superintendent

5.1.6. Local School Board

5.2. Comparison to Japan

5.2.1. Education system is more moral focused than curriculum

6. •Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Educational Achievement and Attainment

6.1.1. 1. African American Students- constant gap in reading and mathematics. significantly below whites and just above hispanics.

6.1.2. 2. Hispanic-American Students- constant gap in reading and mathematics. Lowest level.

6.1.3. 3. Women Students- females outperform males in most categories except math and science.

6.2. Response to the Coleman Study

6.2.1. 1. Where an individual goes to school, it has no effect on cognitive growth or educational mobility.

6.2.2. 2. Significant difference between public and Catholic schools, but negligible results in learning differences.

6.2.3. 3. Where an individual goes to school is often related to race and socioeconomic status.

7. •Educational Inequality

7.1. Sociological Explanations of Unequal Achievement

7.1.1. 1. Functionalist expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results

7.1.2. 2. Conflict theorists believe schooling is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality.

7.1.3. 3. Interactionism- one must understand how people within institutions such as families and schools on a daily basis explains academic success and failure.

7.2. School Centered Explaination

7.2.1. 1. Coleman report argued that school differences were not the most explainable variable for lower educational attainment.

7.2.2. 2. Within-school differences does not rule out the possibility that schools affect educational inequality.

7.2.3. 3. Coleman report cast out doubt about differences between performance gap and socioeconomic or racial backgrounds.

8. •Educational Reform

8.1. School based reforms

8.1.1. 1. School Choice- valuable because it reflected the values and needs of their constituents.

8.1.2. 2. Charter Schools- public school that is paid for with tax dollars and open to all students.

8.1.3. 3. Tuition Vouchers

8.1.3.1. 1. Provide better learning environment for low income individuals

8.1.3.2. 2. same choices for low income as middle income

8.1.3.3. 3. urban public schools will be forced to improve or close doors.

8.2. Societal, community, economic, or political reforms

8.2.1. 1. Advantage of state takeover- good opportunity for state and local decision makers to combine resources and knowledge to improve student's learning.

8.2.2. 2. Disadvantage of state takeover- suggests that local communities lack the capacity to operate effective public schools.

8.2.3. 3. Studies suggest that takeovers yield more gain in the central office activities than in classroom instructional practices.

9. •History of U.S. Education

9.1. Reform Movement

9.1.1. 1. Common School Era

9.1.1.1. Group of men and women who did not hold public office and articulated ideas of evangelical Christianity with the ultimate goals being secular in nature

9.1.2. 3. Post WW II Era

9.1.2.1. 1. Traditionalists- believed in knowledge-centered education, discipline and authority, and the defense of academic standards in the name of excellence.

9.1.2.2. 2. Progressives- believed in experiential education, a curriculum that responded to both needs of students and the times.

9.1.2.3. Most important reform in the 1980s-2012 Era is charter schools, which are independent of local district control, but receive public funding.

9.1.3. 2. Progressive Era

9.1.3.1. Insisted on government regulation of industry and commerce, as well as government regulation and conservation of the nation's natural resources.

9.2. Historical Interpretation

9.2.1. 1. Democratic Liberal School:

9.2.1.1. Committed to providing equality of opportunity for all and rejecting views such as elite institutions.

9.2.2. 2. Radical Revisionist School:

9.2.2.1. Believed the educational system expanded to meet the needs of the elites in society for the working class and immigrants for economic efficiency.

9.2.3. 3. Conservative Perspectives

9.2.3.1. Argue that U.S. students knew very little and that U.S. schools were mediocre.