My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Equality of Opportunity

1.1. Types of Stratification

1.1.1. Caste

1.1.1.1. occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion

1.1.2. Estate

1.1.2.1. occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth (Britain)

1.1.3. Class

1.1.3.1. occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits (U.S.)

1.2. achievement gap

1.2.1. the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students

1.2.1.1. socioeconomic status

1.2.1.2. race/ethnicity

1.2.1.3. gender

1.3. The Coleman Report

1.3.1. an influential and controversial study based on an extensive survey of educational opportunity

1.3.2. mandated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964

1.3.3. James Coleman

1.3.4. misinterpreted as an argument that 'schools don't matter, only families matter'

1.3.5. his work was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools did matter so that the impact of school relative to that of family could be increased

2. Schools as Organizations

2.1. school influenced by outside factors

2.2. U.S. is a decentralized school system (autonomy)

2.3. consolidation and centralization of schools (school districts so efficient and cost effective)

2.4. Willard Waller: schools are separate social organizations

2.4.1. definite population

2.4.2. defined political structure

2.4.3. central social relationships

2.4.4. "we" ideal

2.4.5. definite culture

2.5. No Child Left Behind teacher qualifications

2.5.1. hold a college degree

2.5.2. full certification in field of study

2.5.3. demonstrate knowledge of academic content in field of study/certification

2.6. Educational Systems in Other Countries

2.6.1. Great Britain

2.6.1.1. five stages of education

2.6.1.1.1. early years

2.6.1.1.2. primary

2.6.1.1.3. secondary

2.6.1.1.4. further education

2.6.1.1.5. higher education

2.6.1.2. highly centralized

2.6.1.3. govt. has a lot of say so in schools

2.6.2. France

2.6.2.1. highly centralized

2.6.2.2. schools highly stratified with two public schools (for ordinary and elite)

2.6.3. Japan

2.6.3.1. benchmark for educational effectiveness

2.6.3.2. Double Schooling (Traditional and informal)

2.6.4. Germany

2.6.4.1. sorts children at a young age and tracks them

2.6.5. Finland

2.6.5.1. top educational system

2.6.5.2. emphasis on formative assessment (not testing just at end, but throughout)

2.6.5.3. rigorous teacher education programs

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. traditional

3.1.1. Realism

3.1.1.1. essentialism

3.1.1.1.1. teacher led

3.1.1.1.2. direct instruction

3.1.1.1.3. empirical POV (based on observations and experience

3.1.1.1.4. orderly classroom

3.1.1.1.5. core curriculum (back-to-basics)

3.1.1.1.6. syllogism (deductive reasoning)

3.1.1.1.7. tabula rasa

3.1.1.1.8. Theoristis: Bagley and Hirsch

3.1.2. Idealism

3.1.2.1. perenialism

3.1.2.1.1. teacher led

3.1.2.1.2. no textbooks

3.1.2.1.3. electives unnecessary

3.1.2.1.4. focus on classic literature

3.1.2.1.5. Theorists: Hutchins and Adler

3.2. "more radical"

3.2.1. Pragmatism

3.2.1.1. progressivism

3.2.1.1.1. student led

3.2.1.1.2. teacher is facilitator

3.2.1.1.3. learning by doing

3.2.1.1.4. group work

3.2.1.1.5. inquiry method of learning

3.2.1.1.6. project based learning

3.2.1.1.7. organizes school around students

3.2.1.1.8. Theorists: Dewey and Noddings

3.2.2. Neo-Marxism

3.2.2.1. Social-Reconstructionism

3.2.2.1.1. student led

3.2.2.1.2. focus on bettering society

3.2.2.1.3. flexible curriculum (go w/ flow)

3.2.2.1.4. Theorists: Counts and Freire

3.2.3. Existentialism

3.2.3.1. student led

3.2.3.2. students choose pace

3.2.3.3. students grade/evaluate themselves

3.2.3.4. shuns traditional curriculum

3.2.3.5. individuality

3.2.3.6. purpose of education is for students to find own meaning of life (adults butt out)

3.2.3.7. Theorists: Greene and Neill

4. Politics of Education

4.1. Neo-Liberal

4.1.1. conservative views

4.1.2. liberal views

4.2. Conservative

4.2.1. traditional

4.2.1.1. teacher is the leader of the classroom

4.2.1.2. school should provide educational training to ensure talented and hardworking students receive the tools to prepare them to be productive in society

4.2.2. emphasis on hard work, individual initiative, and family unity

4.2.3. free market economy of capitalism is most productive

4.2.4. believe educational problems stem from decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, and decline of authority

4.2.5. origins in 19th century social Darwinism

4.2.6. positive view of U.S. society

4.3. Liberal

4.4. Radical

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. 2 main approaches to curriculum

5.1.1. traditional

5.1.1.1. curriculum is objective and examines how knowledge can be designed, taught, and assessed

5.1.2. current

5.1.2.1. curriculum focuses on goals and objectives to assess student learning (not just knowledge based)

5.2. 4 Types of Curriculum

5.2.1. Humanist

5.2.1.1. based from idealist philosophy

5.2.1.2. emphasis on traditional liberal arts as basis of educated society

5.2.1.3. purpose of education is to present students the best of what has ever been taught

5.2.2. Social Efficiency

5.2.2.1. pragmatic/progressive in nature

5.2.2.2. believe different groups of students have different need and should get different types of education to meet those needs

5.2.3. Developmentalist

5.2.3.1. based on progressive practices

5.2.3.2. importance of the process of teaching along with the curricular content

5.2.3.3. focuses on needs and interests of each individual child at different developemental stages

5.2.4. Social Meliorist

5.2.4.1. based on social deconstructionist theory that schools should work to change society to help solve social problems

5.3. Influences on Curriculum

5.3.1. Pluralist Model of Political Power

5.3.1.1. political system is not in control by any one influence (balanced)

5.3.2. Political Elite Model

5.3.2.1. small number of powerful groups dominate and have disproportionate control over decision making

5.4. Sociology of Curriculum

5.4.1. Functionalist Theory

5.4.1.1. role of curriculum is to give students knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability, to further the common social order

5.4.2. Conflict Theory

5.4.2.1. curriculum is a reflection of ideology

5.4.2.2. do not believe schools should teach liberal values such as respect

5.4.3. Hidden Curriculum

5.4.3.1. includes norms that are taught to students but are not written in official curriculum such as learning to walk in a line

5.4.4. Null Curriculum

5.4.4.1. curriculum is specifically omitted from being taught (bad version of Columbus)

5.5. Traditions in Pedagogic Practices

5.5.1. Mimetic Tradition

5.5.1.1. based on view that education should relay specific knowledge to students

5.5.1.2. didactic method of teaching (lectures)

5.5.2. Transformative Tradition

5.5.2.1. views education as having the ability to change each student in a meaningful way (intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally)

5.5.2.2. dialectic teaching (question and answer sessions)

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. History

6.1.1. Early schooling was informal and taught at the home

6.1.2. 1647 Puritans of New England created "Old Deluder Satan Laws" making sure students could read (first step to government directed public ed.

6.1.3. New England Primer: first reading textbook in colonies

6.1.4. Benjamin Franklin

6.1.4.1. 1st progressive advocator

6.1.4.2. not only focus on traditional studies of religion and classics

6.1.5. Thomas Jefferson

6.1.5.1. wanted free education for all children first three years in elementary school

6.1.6. Land Ordinance Act/Northwest Ordinance

6.1.6.1. made it so that every town had a school and they had to pay for it through property taxes (land)

6.1.7. 1874 Kalamazoo Case

6.1.7.1. reinforced that land taxes would be taken to help fund schools

6.1.8. 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson

6.1.8.1. Separate but Equal

6.1.9. 1954 Brown v. Board of Education

6.1.9.1. overturned Plessy v. Ferguson

6.1.9.2. segregation was unconstutional

6.1.9.3. starting place for civil rights movement

6.1.10. 1972 Title IX prohibited discrimination based on sex

6.1.11. 1974 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

6.1.12. Horace Mann

6.1.12.1. free education

6.1.12.2. normal school (teacher training)

6.1.12.3. common school (free all the way to high school

6.1.13. 1983 A Nation at Risk (Reagan Administration)

6.1.14. 2002 No Child Left Behind

6.2. Political Interpretations

6.2.1. Conservative

6.2.1.1. academic quality suffered due to progressive movements

6.2.1.2. damage to traditional academic goals of school (back to basics

6.2.1.3. positive view of history

6.2.2. Democratic-Liberals

6.2.2.1. believes the progressive evolution have been committed to providing equal opportunity for all students

6.2.2.2. positive view of history

6.2.3. Radical/Revisionists

6.2.3.1. believe educational expansion has benefitted elite few and not produced equality of opportunity or effective results

6.2.3.2. pessimistic view of history

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. Funcional Theory

7.1.1. view society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work (contribute to stability of whole society)

7.1.2. society is more than the sum of its parts (when on part not working=creates social problems and leads to social change)

7.1.3. stress that individuals must follow social norms

7.2. Interactional Theory

7.2.1. one on one interactions

7.2.2. takes a close view of the interactions between students/students and teachers/teachers, etc.

7.2.3. approach to questions about social cognition or how one understands other people

7.2.4. focuses on behaviors and environmental contexts rather than on mental processes or academic achievement

7.3. Conflict Theory

7.3.1. society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups

7.3.2. Marxist theory

7.3.3. argues that social classes within society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources

7.3.4. believes inequality exists because those in control and have more wealth, defend their advantages

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Functionalist theorists

8.1.1. schooling will produce unequal results, but the results should be due to individual differences between students, not group differences

8.2. Conflict theorists

8.2.1. believe schooling reproduces inequality instead of eliminate inequality

8.3. Interactionist theorists

8.3.1. suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure

8.4. Student Centered/Extra-school inequality focus

8.4.1. focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups are the individual student

8.5. School Centered/Within-school inequality focus

8.5.1. focus on factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate and teacher expectations

8.6. Student Centered Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.6.1. Genetic/Biological Differences Theory

8.6.1.1. see children are "born smart or not" and there isn't anything you can do to change it

8.6.2. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.6.2.1. low socioeconomic status starts a student at a disadvantage because they didn't not have the same access to opportunities and thus have to play catch up in school

8.6.3. Cultural Difference Theories

8.6.3.1. First Theory

8.6.3.1.1. asserts that African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class structure

8.6.3.2. Second Theory

8.6.3.2.1. views working class and non-white students as resisting the dominant culture of schools

8.6.3.3. Third Theory

8.6.3.3.1. asserts that Asian Americans possess family values that place great emphasis on educational achievement along with high expectations for children

8.7. School Centered Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.7.1. school financing

8.7.2. school cliate

8.7.3. effective versus ineffective schools

8.7.4. pedagogic practices

8.8. Characteristics of Effective schools

8.8.1. high expectations

8.8.2. strong, effective leadership

8.8.3. accountability

8.8.4. close monitoring of student learning

8.8.5. high degree of instructional time on task

8.8.6. flexibility

9. Educational Reform

9.1. First wave of Education Reform (A Nation at Risk)

9.1.1. stressed need for increased educational excellence through increased education standards

9.1.2. need excellence and equity in school

9.1.3. need to clarify educational goals

9.1.4. need to develop a common core curriculum

9.1.5. need to eliminate tracking programs

9.1.6. need for major changes in vocational education

9.1.7. need for education to teach about technology

9.1.8. need to increase duration and intensity of academic learning

9.1.9. need to recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers

9.2. Second wave of Education Reform focus on...

9.2.1. teaching, leadership and management

9.2.2. parental involvement and choice in schools

9.2.3. student readiness for school

9.2.4. school facilities being fully utilized

9.2.5. quality colleges and accountability for learning

9.2.6. educational quality of teacher education programs

9.2.6.1. have more rigor in teacher education programs

9.2.6.2. recognize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs

9.2.6.3. need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates

9.3. Goals 2000

9.3.1. Goal 1: all kids start school ready to learn

9.3.2. Goal 2: high school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%

9.3.3. Goal 3: students will leave grades 4,8, and 12 having demonstrated competency in challenging subject material to show they will be productive and responsible citizens

9.3.4. Goal 4: US students will be first in the world in math and science achievement

9.3.5. Goal 5: every adult American will be literate and able to compete in global economy

9.3.6. Goal 6: every school in America will be free of drugs and violence

9.4. No Child Left Behind

9.4.1. annual testing in reading, math, and science

9.4.2. school data is based on student test performance which is broken down based on race and socio-economic background

9.4.3. states set adequate yearly progress for each school

9.4.4. schools are graded on whether or not they meet the AYP and if they fail then they loose funding, etc.

9.4.5. schools must have "highly qualified" teachers

9.5. Race to the Top

9.5.1. adopting standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college, workplace, and global economy

9.5.2. measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how to improve instruction

9.5.3. recruiting, developing, rewarding and retaining effective teachers and principals

9.5.4. turning around the lowest-achieving schools