My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. William Graham Sumner

1.1.1.1. human progress is dependent on individual drive

1.2. Traditional Visions

1.2.1. hard work, family unity, and individual initiative

1.2.1.1. Schools should pass on the best of what was and what is.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Progressive Reform

2.1.1. Child centered education

2.1.1.1. it is so important to make sure the needs of the students are being met

2.1.2. Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

2.1.2.1. education for disadvantaged children

2.1.3. educational priorities shifted toward this side mid 1960's

2.2. Democratic-Liberal

2.2.1. progressive evolution

2.2.2. equal opportunity for all

2.2.2.1. attempts to reject conservative view of schools that acted as institutions for only the meritorious.

2.2.3. Popular Education and Its Discontents

2.2.3.1. "That kind of organization is part of the genius of American Education--it provides a place for everyone who wishes one, and in the end yields on of the most educated populations in the world." Cremin

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Conflict Theories (School and Society)

3.1.1. Sociologists argue that social order is based on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation.

3.1.2. Karl Marx

3.1.2.1. the intellectual founder of the conflict school in the sociology of education

3.1.3. Max Weber

3.1.3.1. He was convinced that power relations between dominant and subordinate groups structured societies, but unlike Marx, Weber believed that class differences alone could not capture the complex ways human beings form hierarchies and belief systems that make these hierarchies just and inevitable.

3.2. Three Effects of Schooling on Students

3.2.1. Employment

3.2.1.1. Getting a college and professional degree is important for earning more money, but education alone does not fully explain differences in levels of income.

3.2.2. Education and Mobility

3.2.2.1. Contest mobility: education leads to economic and social mobility; individuals rise and fall based on their merit.

3.2.2.2. WHERE people go to school affects their mobility.

3.2.2.2.1. Private and public schools may receive the same amount of education, but having a private school diploma may act as a mobility escalator.

3.2.3. Teacher Behavior

3.2.3.1. Teachers wear many hats (roles) in their students life. They are a model and influence self-esteem in their students.

3.2.3.1.1. Research indicates that many teachers have lower expectations for minority and working-class students; this suggests that these students may be trapped within a vicious cycle of low expectation-low achievement-expectation.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism/Progressive Education

4.1.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1.1. The school became an "embryonic community" where children could learn skills both experientially as well as from books, in addition to traditional information, which would enable them to work cooperatively in a democratic society. (page 187)

4.1.1.2. educators start with the needs and interests of the child in the classroom

4.1.1.3. group and experiential learning

4.2. Goal of Education

4.2.1. the school should function as preparation for life in a democratic society

4.2.2. balance the social role of the school with its effects on the social, intellectual, and the personal development of individuals

4.2.3. balance the needs of society and community on one hand and the needs of the individual on the other

4.2.4. creating a modern form of cohesion by socializing divers groups into a cohesive democratic community

4.2.5. Although Dewey located this central function of schools, he never adequately provided a solution to the problem of integrating diverse groups into a community without sacrificing their unique characteristics. THIS IS A PROBLEM STILL HOTLY DEBATED. (page 188)

4.2.6. GROWTH

4.3. John Dewey

4.3.1. introduced instrumentalism and experimentalism

4.3.2. He was the most important influence on what has been termed progressive education.

4.3.3. child-centered progressivism

4.4. Role of the Teacher

4.4.1. The teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study.

4.5. Methods of Instruction

4.5.1. Children learn both individually AND in groups.

4.5.2. Problem solving/inquiry method: children should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know

4.5.3. READ ALL ABOUT IT!! Dewey Claims Formal Instruction Abandoned.

4.6. Curriculum

4.6.1. Progressive educators are not webbed to a fixed curriculum either; rather, curriculum changes as the social order changes and as children's interests and needs change.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Major stake holders in my district

5.1.1. State Senator: Author Orr

5.1.2. State Representative: Ken Johnson

5.1.3. State Superintendent of Education: Thomas R. Bice

5.1.4. Representative: Mo Brooks District 6

5.1.5. Morgan County Board of Education

5.1.5.1. Superintendent: Billy Hopkins

5.2. Japan

5.2.1. first education system developed in 1880s

5.2.2. Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture

5.2.3. Japanese work ethic plays an important role in the success of its students

5.2.4. some students experience two types of educational systems: traditional public and nonformal schools

5.2.5. Their education has more to do with national character than structural reform

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Historical Curriculum

6.1.1. Social efficiency curriculum

6.1.1.1. pragmatist approach

6.1.1.2. "Rather than viewing the need for a common academic curriculum for all students, as with the humanist tradition, the social efficiency curriculum was rooted in the belief that different groups of students, with different sets of needs and aspirations, should receive different types of schooling." page 283

6.1.1.3. Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

6.1.1.3.1. pedagogical progressivism

6.1.1.4. preparing students for roles in society

6.2. Sociology Curriculum: What is taught and Why it is taught

6.2.1. Randall Collins

6.2.1.1. suggested that other theories posit too cohesive a link between economy, the workplace, and the schools.

6.2.1.1.1. Most skills are learned on the job not in schools

6.2.1.2. curriculum reflects the interests of various groups, not just one dominant group

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Gender

7.1.1. Females achieve higher in math and reading at ages 9, 13 and 17, but lower in science at those ages compared to males.

7.1.2. Females have outperformed males in reading since 1973.

7.1.3. Is there a correlation between educational and occupational attainment for women?

7.1.4. Females are rated to be better students, but in the past were less likely to attain the same level of education as males.

7.2. The Coleman Study

7.2.1. The conclusion for this particular study does indicate that, yes, school differences do make a difference in terms of student outcomes.

7.2.2. As being a product of a public school, I can account to this statement being true. I am majoring in elementary education, which is usually perceived as a middle-class woman's job. The public school is filled with middle and lower class people. I have friends who graduated from private schools, who attend Division One colleges, and are of the upper class economic status. Both of my friends parents are doctors, where mine are both middle class workers (a BP employee and a dental hygienist). Now, I do believe that my public school prepared me to go into college, but I also believe schools, along with parents, emphasize what they only expect from you. Sometimes, I feel like I could be an actress, but it is definitely not what I am expected to do. I am expected to be a product of my society, which sadly holds true for most people.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological

8.1.1. Genetic differences are the most controversial.

8.1.1.1. believe that environmental and social factors are largely responsible for human behavior

8.1.2. Cultural Difference Theories

8.1.2.1. Sociologists disagree about the causes of Asian-American academic success.

8.1.2.1.1. 1. Asian-Americans come to the United States willing to adapt to the dominant culture in order to succeed.

8.1.2.1.2. 2. A large number of Asian-Americans come from the educational middle classes of their native countries and already possess the skills and dispositions necessary for academic success.

8.1.2.1.3. 3. Asian-Americans possess family values that place enormous emphasis on educational achievement and have high expectations for their children.

8.2. School Centered Explanations

8.2.1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. More affluent communities are able to provide more per-pupil spending than poorer districts, often at a proportionately less burdensome rate than in poorer communities.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Privatization

9.1.1. *caution: rant ahead* I, personally, see nothing wrong with private schools and having lots of businesses supporting them. My only problem I have seen from my own experience is having to compete with private schools in sports, when they can pick, choose, and pay whomever they would like to come be a part of their team and then play against public schools for state titles.

9.1.2. The line between public and private schools became blurred when companies became involved in public education.

9.2. Societal, Community, Economic, and Political Reforms

9.2.1. State Intervention in Local School Districts

9.2.1.1. Advantages: Take over can allow a competent executive staff to guide an uninterrupted and effective implementation of school improvement efforts. It can lead to statewide accountability efforts.

9.2.1.2. Disadvantages: State takeover might place poorly prepared state-selected officials in charge, with little possibility of any meaningful change occurring in the classroom. Takeover tends to rely on narrow learning measures as the primary criterion for takeover decisions.