My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Students in different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences.

2. Essentialism

2.1. Back to basics-Fundamentals: Reading, writing, mathematics

2.2. E.D. Hirsch and William Bagley-Theorists

2.3. Teacher is the primary authority (Teacher led classroom)

2.4. Curriculum focuses on the core subjects.

3. GI Bill of Rights offered 16 million servicemen and women the opportunity to pursue higher education

4. process that enables the strongest individuals and/or groups to survive

5. Politics of Education

5.1. Traditonalist

5.2. Liberal

5.2.1. believe that the free market, if left unregulated, is prone to significant abuses

5.2.2. John Dewey

5.3. Radical

5.3.1. believe that the democratic socialism as a fairer political-economic system

5.4. Neo-Liberal

5.4.1. critiqued failing traditional urban public schools and attribute their failures to teacher unions

5.5. Conservatives

5.5.1. Charles Darwin

6. Educational Reform

6.1. National Commission of Excellence

6.2. A Nation at Risk

6.3. No Child Left Behind

7. Equality of Opportunity

8. Sociology of Education

8.1. Theoretical Perspectives

8.1.1. theory is an integration of all known principles, laws, and information pertaining to a specific area of study

8.2. Teacher behavior

8.2.1. teachers are models for students and set standards for students and influence student self-esteem

8.3. conflict theories

8.3.1. sociologists argue that social order is not based on some collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force

9. History of Education

9.1. The Rise of Common School

9.1.1. Horace Mann-led struggle for free public education

9.2. Progressive and Traditional

9.2.1. Progressive-believed in experiential education-curriculum that responded to both the needs of students and the times

9.2.2. Traditionalist-believed in knowledge-centered education, subject-centered curriculum, teacher-centered education

9.3. Democratic-Liberal

9.3.1. Believe that history of US education involves progressive evolution of school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all

9.4. Radical-Revisionist School

9.4.1. Revised history of education in a more critical direction

9.5. Conservative Perspective

9.5.1. Diane Ravitch provided critique of radical-revisionist perspective and defense of democratic-liberal position

10. Philosophy of Education

10.1. Realism

10.1.1. Follows same historical traditions as idealism.

10.1.2. Systematic theory of logic (Aristotle)

10.2. Idealism

10.2.1. Perrenialism

10.2.1.1. Theorists Mortimer Adler and Robert Hutchins.

10.2.1.2. Teacher led classroom

10.2.1.3. Teacher subscribes to the doctrine of reminiscence

10.3. Pragmatism

10.3.1. Progressivism

10.3.1.1. Theorists John Dewey and Noel Noddings

10.3.1.2. Student led classroom

10.4. Neo-Marxism

10.4.1. Social Reconstructionism

10.4.1.1. Theorists Paulo Freire and George S. Counts

10.4.1.2. Curriculum is socially constructed

10.4.1.3. Uses the question and answer method to move the student to new levels of awareness and ultimately to change.

10.4.1.4. Student led classroom

10.5. Existentialism

10.5.1. Student led classroom

10.5.2. Theorists A.S. Neill and Maxine Greene.

10.5.3. View learning as intensely personal.

10.5.4. Believe in exposing students at an early age to problems as well as possibilities.

11. Schools as organizations

11.1. Student composition of U.S. schools is becoming more diverse as well as increasing residential segregation.

11.2. Degree of openness

11.3. Very little regulations of private education by state authorities in the U.S.

11.4. Willard Waller stated schools are separate social organizations because they have a definite population.

11.5. A requirement of NCLB is that all schools have highly qualified teachers in every classroom.

11.6. Dan Lortie argues that teaching is only partially professionalized.

12. The Transmission of Knowledge

12.1. The humanistic curriculum focused on Western heritage as basis for intellectual development.

12.2. Social efficiency curriculum developed as a response to the development of mass public secondary education.

12.3. Developmentalist curriculum is related to the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society.

12.4. Social meliorist curriculum- philosophically social reconstructionist

12.5. Conflicts over curriculum are more likely to occur in public schools than in private schools.

12.6. Hidden curriculum includes what is taught to students through implicit rules and messages.

13. Equality of Opportunity

13.1. Caste stratification -defined in terms of some strict ascriptive criteria such as race and/or religious worth.

13.2. Estate stratification- social level is defined in terms of hierarchy of family worth.

13.3. Class stratification-define social level in terms of hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits.

13.4. The Coleman Study shows that differences among school do make a difference.

13.5. The study of mobility is referred to as the status-attainment process.

14. Explanations of Educational Inequality

14.1. Functionalists expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results.

14.2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality.

14.3. Cultural deprivation theory suggests that working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources.

14.4. Cultural difference theories agree that there are cultural and family differences between working-class and nonwhite students, and white middle-class students.

15. Educational Reform and School Improvement

15.1. No Child Left Behind Act- a logical progression of the standards movement initiated in 1983 by A Nation at Risk.

15.2. A Race to the Top Fund was established by Obama to aid states in meeting the various components of NCLB.

15.3. A new-liberal approach to reform stresses the independent power of schools in eliminating the achievement gap for low-income students.

15.4. Second approach is argues that schools are limited institutions for eradicating the effect of poverty and its effects on children.

15.5. Ron Edmonds argued that educational reform and improvement must consider problems of both equity and quality.