14 Categories of Disabilities

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14 Categories of Disabilities by Mind Map: 14 Categories of Disabilities

1. Autism

1.1. A developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication, as well as, social interaction. Autism is generally apparent before age three and has adverse affects on a child’s educational performance. Characteristics associated with autism are engaging in repetitive activities and movements, resistance to change in environment and routine, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.

1.1.1. Applied Behavior Analysis is an empirically-based treatment strategy for children diagnosed with ASDs. ABA involves using the student’s interests and preferences, promoting communication and functional skills, enhancing adaptive and social functioning, and integrating peer-mediated strategies. Technology Assisted Classroom Teaching (TACT) is a teacher-initiated remote behavior captures system with access to professional support and expertise. This technology utilizes a camera and a small computer to efficiently record target behaviors, both antecedents and consequences, and also acts as an aide in teaching new skills.

2. Multiple Disabilities

2.1. Simultaneous impariments.

2.1.1. Pointing to objects or pictures to assist a student in making choices is a way to allow a student to communicate his or her wants and/or needs. Tapspeak Button is an app designed to help people with disabilities to communicate through a simple interface that records and plays messages.

3. Deaf-Blindness

3.1. Simultaneous hearing and visual impairment. This combination causes severe communication, developmental, and educational needs.

3.1.1. He learns only by what he does. This means that no learning is taking place for him while waiting for others to take their turn. For this reason small group or individual instruction becomes more critical. Large group instruction is only valuable if he can be consistently active (e.g. playground activities).

4. Deafness

4.1. A hearing impairment so severe that a child is weakened in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

4.1.1. Speak It is an smartphone application that allows individuals to type out their responses. One then selects play and the app will speak for the student. Teachers should provide a student transcripts for audio instruction as well as breaking instructions into small steps.

5. Developmental Delay

5.1. As defined by each state, developmental delay means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

5.1.1. Picture It is a smartphone application that can assist a student with receptive language skills.

6. Emotional Disturbance

6.1. Exhibiting one or more of the following and to a level negatively affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

6.1.1. Provide students with a class schedule for the day. This will indicate for the student what to expect for the day. Utilize a self-monitoring checklist, allowing the student to check off activities as completed. http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/ca/rti/downloads/Megan.pdf

7. Hearing Impairment

7.1. An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”

7.1.1. Assist the student in finding an effective notetaker from the class. Allow the student to sit near the instructor during instruction/lectures. Allow time for clarification of directions and essential information

8. Intellectual Disability

8.1. Significantly sub average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

8.1.1. Break down tasks into small steps, introducing learning tasks one step at a time. When a step is mastered, the next step is introduced.

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. Impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes.

9.1.1. Special seating arrangements may be necessary to help assist in developing proper posture and movement. Instructions geared towards developing gross and fine motor skills are useful for these students.

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. This is an umbrella term for a range of conditions. It includes having reduced strength, vitality, or alertness, as well as heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, resulting in limited alertness to the educational environment, that- a. is due to chronic or acute health problems such as, asthma attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and b. adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

10.1.1. Reference the students IEP in order to make accommodations for them in the classroom for their own specific needs.

11. Speech or Language Impairment

11.1. A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

11.1.1. Provide the student with an outline of what is being learned that day. Proloquo2Go is a mobile application that provides visual and voice cues. This app helps individuals with language impairments interact and engage with others more successfully.

12. Specific Learning Disability

12.1. A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may be evident in the inadequate ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.

12.1.1. Auditory Processing Disorder: Affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed & interpreted by the brain. Provide the student with text instructions and lecture notes.

12.1.2. Dysgraphia: A specific learning disability that affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills. Allow the student extra time to take notes, tests, and copy material.

12.1.3. Language Processing Disorder: A specific type of (APD) that affects attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and stories. Allowing students to discuss assignments with each other and with teachers to get clarification

12.1.4. Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit: A disorder that affects the understanding of information that a person sees, or the ability to draw or copy. Keep visual resources to the student at a minimum. Too many can be distracting to the student.

12.1.5. Dyscalculia: A specific learning disability that affects a person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts. Review previously learned material before moving on. Highlight or circle keywords and numbers in word problems. http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/ca/rti/downloads/Nick.pdf

12.1.6. Dyslexia: A specific learning disability that affects reading and related language-based processing skills. Encourage good organizational skills by the use of folders and dividers to keep work easily accessible and in an orderly fashion. http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/ca/rti/downloads/Ellie.pdf

12.1.7. Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities: Has trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body language and may have poor coordination. Monitor their understanding when communicating, and teach them to self-monitor their understanding and ask clarifying questions.

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech.

13.1.1. Allow additional time to complete assignments. Provide the student with teacher notes or quality notes from another student. Reduce quantity or work, in favor of quality.

14. Visual Impairment, including blindness

14.1. Impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

14.1.1. Verbalize everything. This includes notes on the board and calling on students (use names). Encourage tactical and hands on exploration. Large text may also be useful to students with partial sight.