Key philosophy terms

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Key philosophy terms by Mind Map: Key philosophy terms

1. Metaphysics

1.1. Ontology

1.1.1. A branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being. The study of being, becoming, existence or reality.

2. Deontology

2.1. Duty, obligation, rule based ethics

3. Metaethics

3.1. Focuses on what is morality itself. Explores status, foundations and scope of moral values, properties and words.

4. Phenomenology

4.1. The study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

5. Apriorism

5.1. Belief in A priori beliefs or principles

5.1.1. A priori: knowledge that comes from theoretical deduction rather than observation/experience

6. Kantianism

6.1. Describes contemporary positions in mind, ethics and epistemology.

6.1.1. Kant's ethics are deontological, revolving entirely around duty, rather than emotions or end goals.

7. Emotivism

7.1. Moral judgements express individuals feelings rather than state any matter of fact.

8. Voluntarism

8.1. A school of thought which defines the will as superior to intellect and emotion.

9. Platonism

9.1. The view that abstract objects are entirely non-spatiotemporal. For example, property of red exists entirely of any red thing.

10. Epistemology

10.1. Theory of knowledge, distinction between justified belief and opinion

10.1.1. Skepticism: Doubting claims to knowledge and challenging the adequacy and reliability of principles knowledge is based on

11. Reletivism

11.1. Knowledge exists in relation to society, culture and historical context. Not absolute.

12. Realism

12.1. Truth consists in an individual’s correspondence to reality. New observations bring us closer to understanding reality

13. Idealism

13.1. Objects of knowledge are dependent from thought

14. Monism

14.1. A view that attributes oneness. The doctrine of unity.

15. Dualism

15.1. Te theory that the mental and the physical, or mind and body or mind and brain, are, radically different kinds of things. Contrasts with Monism

16. Pluralism

16.1. The doctrine of multiplicity. A view whereby multiple things can coexist.

17. Eclecticism

17.1. Constructed new systems from parts of varying doctrines that seemed most reasonable. Stoics are an example

18. Existentialism

18.1. Emphasises individual existence, freedom and choice. Humans define their own meaning in life and try to make rational decisions despite living in an irrational world.

19. Humanism

19.1. An ethical stance that emphasises the value and agency of the individual. Prefers rationalism/empiricism over fideism.

20. Determinism

20.1. Every event, human decision and action is the inevitable consequence of things which existed before.

21. Rationalism

21.1. The theory that exercise of reason provides the primary basis for knowledge.

22. Empiricism

22.1. Matters of fact derive from experience. Often opposed to Rationalism

23. Fideism

23.1. Reason is unnecessary for the justification of religious belief