Key philosophy terms

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Key philosophy terms by Mind Map: Key philosophy terms

1. Deontology

1.1. Duty, obligation, rule based ethics

2. Metaphysics

2.1. Ontology

2.1.1. A branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being. The study of being, becoming, existence or reality.

3. Epistemology

3.1. Theory of knowledge, distinction between justified belief and opinion

3.1.1. Skepticism: Doubting claims to knowledge and challenging the adequacy and reliability of principles knowledge is based on

4. Reletivism

4.1. Knowledge exists in relation to society, culture and historical context. Not absolute.

5. Realism

5.1. Truth consists in an individual’s correspondence to reality. New observations bring us closer to understanding reality

6. Idealism

6.1. Objects of knowledge are dependent from thought

7. Monism

7.1. A view that attributes oneness. The doctrine of unity.

8. Dualism

8.1. Te theory that the mental and the physical, or mind and body or mind and brain, are, radically different kinds of things. Contrasts with Monism

9. Pluralism

9.1. The doctrine of multiplicity. A view whereby multiple things can coexist.

10. Eclecticism

10.1. Constructed new systems from parts of varying doctrines that seemed most reasonable. Stoics are an example

11. Metaethics

11.1. Focuses on what is morality itself. Explores status, foundations and scope of moral values, properties and words.

12. Phenomenology

12.1. The study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

13. Apriorism

13.1. Belief in A priori beliefs or principles

13.1.1. A priori: knowledge that comes from theoretical deduction rather than observation/experience

14. Existentialism

14.1. Emphasises individual existence, freedom and choice. Humans define their own meaning in life and try to make rational decisions despite living in an irrational world.

15. Humanism

15.1. An ethical stance that emphasises the value and agency of the individual. Prefers rationalism/empiricism over fideism.

16. Kantianism

16.1. Describes contemporary positions in mind, ethics and epistemology.

16.1.1. Kant's ethics are deontological, revolving entirely around duty, rather than emotions or end goals.

17. Emotivism

17.1. Moral judgements express individuals feelings rather than state any matter of fact.

18. Voluntarism

18.1. A school of thought which defines the will as superior to intellect and emotion.

19. Determinism

19.1. Every event, human decision and action is the inevitable consequence of things which existed before.

20. Rationalism

20.1. The theory that exercise of reason provides the primary basis for knowledge.

21. Empiricism

21.1. Matters of fact derive from experience. Often opposed to Rationalism

22. Fideism

22.1. Reason is unnecessary for the justification of religious belief

23. Platonism

23.1. The view that abstract objects are entirely non-spatiotemporal. For example, property of red exists entirely of any red thing.