CARBOHYDRATES

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CARBOHYDRATES by Mind Map: CARBOHYDRATES

1. Monosaccharides - molecular formula that contain CH2O, simple sugars

1.1. Glucose - most common and most important for life, an aldose

1.2. Fructose - an isomer (has same chemical structure with different arrangement) of glucose, a ketose

1.3. Galactose - similar to glucose with only two molecules rearranged, an energy source for organisms

2. Disaccharide - two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond from a dehydration reaction (glycosidic linkage), double sugars

2.1. Maltose - formed from the glycosidic linkage of two glucose molecules, malt sugar (an ingredient in brewing beer)

2.2. Sucrose - formed from the glycosidic linkage of one glucose and one fructose molecule, table sugar

2.3. Lactose - formed from the glycosidic linkage of one glucose and one galactose molecules, the sugar in milk

3. Polysaccharides - a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages, combination of simple and double sugars

3.1. Starch - polymer of glucose monomers, stored as sugars for later use (stored energy)

3.1.1. Amylose

3.1.2. Amylopectin

3.2. Glycogen - polymer of glycogen, stored in liver and muscle cells, released when demand of sugar increases, short-term energy

3.3. Cellulose - makes up cell walls in plants

3.4. Chitin - makes up the exoskeletons of arthropods, makes up cells walls of fungi