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Chapter 1 Technical and Professional Communication in the Workplace by Mind Map: Chapter 1 Technical
and Professional
Communication in
the Workplace
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Chapter 1 Technical and Professional Communication in the Workplace

Technical and Professional Communication is: communication about coomplex, detailed problems, issues, or subjects, which helps audiences to understand info so they can make informed and ethical decisions.


E-mails and Memos


Job Search Documentation

Technical Definitions

Technical Descriptions


Technical instructions


Proposal and requests for proposals

Informal reports

formal reports




Audience Centered

HTW - Audience

Technology Oriented


HTW - Ethics in Writing

Research Oriented



Design Centered


HTW - Sentence Construction and Sentence Faults







HTW - Layout and Design

Integrating Visuals





Problem Solving

Workplace Problem

PSA (Problem Solving Approach), Plan, Define and describe "Real" problem, make a distinction between the "real" and "perceived" problem, Establish goals and purposes for writing, Identify stakeholders and what they need, Consider Ethical choices with the problem, Consider document formats and delivery mode, Figure out what you know and what you need to find out, Research, Draft, Confirm document goals, purposes, format and delivery method, Organize and Draft the document, Design and Arrange the document, Add visual elements if appropriate, Review, Test usability of document, Get feedback from peers or colleagues, Revise or rewrite document, Edit to ensure correctness, Distribute, Include related documents and attachements, Confirm appropriate means to transmit document, Transmit the document, Follow up to ensure it was received, Asses the document's outcome

Rhetorical Problem

HTW - Persuasion, What is Rhetoric?, Thinking Rhetorically, Exigency, Workplace Writer, Ethos, Correctness, Experience, Expertise, Goodwill, Audience, Vary Significantly, Have expectations and attitudes, Different audiences use documents differently, Document, Informs, Defines, Explains, Proposes, Convinces, Contextual Factors and Constraints

Chapter 2 Rhetorical and Technical Communication Problem Solving - Workplace and Rhetorical

always more than one way to solve a problem

Chapter 3 Technical Communication and Electronic Technologies

The impact of technology has been great as it creates new opportunities and new challenges for transnational communication. It is important for workplace writers to keep up with technological advances that affect the production and distribution of documents.

Creating Documents

Word Processors

Presentation Software

Graphics and Imaging Software

Web-Authoring Software

Desktop Publishing

Help and E-Learning Authoring tools

Single-Sourcing Programs

Communicating and Collaborating

The Internet, The World Wide Web, E-Mail, Advantages, Speed, Price, Convenience, Organization, Electronic Messaging, HTW - page 256-58, IM's can exchange info qucikly, develop rapport, good for short messages, be aware of virus and security risks, be aware IM's can be saved so use appropriately, Videoconferences, Groupware, HTW - Groupware for meeting from remote locations, use groupware or whiteboard software (page 324)

Ethics and Electronic Communication

Edward R. Murrow - "...we are still left with the same problem of communicating effectively, clearly and appropriately

Netiquette, Choose appropriate email address, Use appropriate subject line, Respect other's bandwidth, Lurk before you leap, Polish your writing, Watch those caps, Use attachments appropriately, Back it up and save it, When it's out there, it's out there!, HTW - Page 163 provides further workplace netiquette checklist, Maintain professionalism, Review your organization's policy regarding appropriate use of email, Use cc: and bcc: thoughtfully, Include cover letters for emails w/attachments, avoid abbreviations and emoticons

In the Future?

Wi-Fi will improve

Bandwidth and Connection speed will improve

Integration and portability will continue to increase

Prices for technology will drop

Transnationalism will continue to influence computer technology

Chapter 4 Ethics and the Workplace Writer


about right and wrong

Ethical guidelines for Workplace Writers, # 1 Ethics and Laws are no the same, Liability laws, Environmental laws, Copyright laws, Patent law, Trademark and Service Mark laws, Contract laws, #2 Be Honest, #3 Respect Confidentiality

Ethics in context, Situation and Perspective, Circulation, Revision and Editing

Codes of Ethics

Ethics and Technology, Email - never private, anything can be posted, true or false, Webpages- not all info on the web is true, Visuals - graphics can be altered and misleading

Environmental Factors, ethical/rhetorical choices can have environmental ramifications

Avoiding Unethical Writing, Don't use deceptive or evasive language, Don't obscure or misinterpret the issue, Abstract language, Jargon, Emphasis or suppression of info, Visual Rhetoric, Plagiarism, Use of inaccurate info

Chapter 5 Technical Communication in a Transnational World

technoclogical advances open the lines of communication, global economy, communicating with transnational and transcultural audiences

Learning about Differences

Culture, Language, Target language, Official Language, Text Directionality, Writing Style, Never assume English is known, HTW - English as a second language pages 169-72 - interesting to see English from a nonnative point of view, Technology, Does target country have same access to technology?, Education, Literacy, Common Body of Knowledge, Learning Style, Politics and Law, Trade isssues, Legal issues - copyrights, trademarks, etc, Political Traditions and Symbols, Economics, Society, Age, Business Etiquette, Family and Social interaction, Religion

Avoiding Stereotypes

Ethical and responsible workplace writers must be diligent in develpoing accurate understandings of there transnational audiences

Avoid Assumptions

Ask Questions

Collaborate with the Translator

Enhancing Translation

the responsibilty of  most workplace wrtiers is not to translate documents but to prepare documents that can accomodate translation



Cultural and Rhetorical Differences


Ways to accommodate Transnational audiences


Internationalization, 1. Internationalization of transnational document, 2. then Localization of the document


Verbal Communication

Transnational Ethics

ethical understandings don't always cross borders

Guidelines for Writing for Transnational Audiences

Write Clearly, Use correct Punctuation, Include definite articles, avoid using pronouns, use terminology, avoid idiomatic language, avoid comparatives, HTW - Gobbledygook page 233 -Avoid!

Localize your Writing, Recognize Alphabetic differences, use local numbers, Be alert to time difference, avoid references to holidays, avoid cultural references, avoid humor

Account for Visual and auditory perceptions, Avoid images of people and hand gestures, Reevaluate design elements and principles, account for differences in sound interpretation, HTW - Page 230-1 - global graphics, symbols, images, and colors are not free from cultural associations, they depend on context - checklist page 232

Chapter 7 Organizing and Drafting Documents

order in which info presented can be crucial, this is why organizing and drafting are so important

Predrafting strategies

Confirm purpose

Analyze your audience

Gather your info

Develop ideas about the info, Collaboration and Discussion, Listing, Freewriting, Clustering

Organize your info, Sequential, Chronological, Order of importance, General/Specific, Division, Classification, Cause and Effect, Comparison/Contrast, spatial, HTW - Called Methods of Development page 329-32 -most documents rely on a blend of the above methods

Outline your important ideas, HTW - Outlining page 362-365

Writing the Draft

Parts of a Document, Front matter, Body, End matter

Is a nonlinear process

Draft the Body, Coverage and length-don't worry about it, just do quality work, Organization and Access

Draft the Conclusion

Draft he Introduction, purpose/objective, Scope, statement of the problem, Relevant info/background, Key Terms, Overview of organization, Summary

Templates and wizards - generally, do not use - make your own document

HTW - Writing a Rough Draft pages 569-70 - writing and revising are two different things. Follow your outline and get your ideas down without worrying about writing it perfectly the first time. Includes a writer's checklist