ELL Standards and Objectives

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ELL Standards and Objectives by Mind Map: ELL Standards and Objectives

1. English in Singapore

1.1. LISTENING AND VIEWING

1.1.1. Develop appropriate listening and viewing attitudes and behaviour, and apply skills and strategies, strengthened by exposure to wide listening to and viewing of spoken, audio and visual texts.

1.1.1.1. Demonstrate positive listening and viewing attitudes and behaviour by showing attentiveness and understanding

1.1.1.2. Use appropriate skills and strategies to process meaning from texts

1.1.1.3. Use appropriate skills and strategies to evaluate texts

1.1.1.4. Listen to and view a variety of literary selections and informational/ functional texts

1.1.2. Secondary School Critical Listening Practices

1.1.2.1. In addition to revisiting the critical listening and viewing skills taught at the Primary levels, teachers will, for example, guide pupils to organise information by using graphic organisers (e.g., concept-mapping tools) and to evaluate the logic and soundness of arguments by posing a range of questions.

1.1.2.2. Teachers will guide pupils in evaluating the validity of an argument based on the given evidence and the lines of reasoning presented.

1.1.2.3. Pupils will monitor their own thoughts and feelings while assessing spoken, audio and visual texts.

1.1.2.4. Teachers will guide pupils in identifying the language features of texts and discuss how and why they (e.g., choice of words) evoke certain responses from listeners and/ or viewers.

1.2. READING AND VIEWING

1.2.1. Develop reading and viewing skills, strategies, attitudes and behaviour and text type-specific comprehension skills and strategies, strengthened by exposure to wide reading and viewing.

1.2.1.1. Use reading readiness and word identification skills

1.2.1.2. Process and comprehend age-/ year level appropriate texts at literal and inferential levels

1.2.1.3. Apply critical reading and viewing by focusing on implied meaning, higher-order thinking, judgement and evaluation

1.2.1.4. Apply close and critical reading and viewing to a variety of literary selections and informational/ functional texts, from print and non-print sources, for learning in the literary/ content areas and to understand how lexical and grammatical items are used in context

1.2.1.5. LO5a: Read and view widely for pleasure, and to demonstrate independent reading and learning in the literary/content areas (Primary) LO5b: Sustain reading and viewing widely for pleasure, personal development and learning in the literary/ content areas (Secondary)

1.2.2. Primary - Secondary Critical Reading Practices

1.2.2.1. Pupils are encouraged to read between the lines and view for implied meanings, analyse the underlying meaning of visual messages, offer interpretive judgement, and question and evaluate what is read from a variety of sources, including the writers’ intentions/ assumptions and soundness of the argument.

1.2.2.2. Pupils will deepen their understanding of the text by relating it to personal experiences, real life, its context and similar writing or works, including visual texts.

1.2.2.3. They will also examine the elements of style. This process involves close and critical reading of texts, the organisational structure of texts and the artful use of language for impact.

1.2.2.4. Pupils will realise the connection between language features and the types of texts.

1.2.2.5. They will also identify the meanings conveyed by the interplay of what is written and the visuals in a text.

1.3. SPEAKING AND REPRESENTING

1.3.1. Develop understanding of key features of spoken language and apply speaking and representing skills and strategies in using language appropriately to address purpose, audience, context and culture.

1.3.1.1. Demonstrate knowledge of spoken grammar and register

1.3.1.2. Speak with accurate pronunciation and appropriate intonation

1.3.1.3. Plan and present information and ideas for a variety of purposes

1.3.1.4. Use appropriate skills, strategies and language to convey and construct meaning during interactions

1.3.1.5. Produce spontaneous and planned spoken texts that are grammatically accurate, fluent, coherent and cohesive

1.3.2. Lower - Upper Primary Conversation Practices

1.3.2.1. Teachers will help pupils learn to perform various communicative functions (e.g., introducing themselves and others, making requests, and expressing their ideas, opinions, thoughts and feelings) clearly and appropriately in various interactive situations, taking into account the social and cultural norms and values.

1.3.2.2. Teachers will guide pupils in the use of language to express appreciation.

1.3.2.3. They will teach them to respond to questions, and guide them on how to frame and ask questions for clarification, understanding and elaboration.

1.3.2.4. Teachers will also teach pupils to elaborate on topics and paraphrase information to verify, clarify and confirm.

1.3.2.5. They will also develop pupils’ ability to generate and explore ideas, and to take turns during collaborative group activities.

1.4. WRITING AND REPRESENTING

1.4.1. Develop writing readiness, penmanship and spelling accuracy, and apply skills and strategies for idea generation, selection, development, organisation and revision in writing and representing to address purpose, audience, context and culture in a variety of texts.

1.4.1.1. Develop writing readiness and penmanship to write accurately and fluently in print and cursive script

1.4.1.2. Use accurate and consistent spelling

1.4.1.3. Generate and select ideas for writing and representing for a variety of purposes, audiences, contexts and cultures

1.4.1.4. Develop, organise and express ideas coherently and cohesively in writing and representing for a variety of purposes, audiences, contexts and cultures

1.4.1.5. Review, revise, proofread and edit to improve writing and representation

1.4.1.6. Produce a variety of texts for creative, personal, academic, and functional purposes, using an appropriate register and tone

1.4.2. Middle Primary - Secondary Writing Practices

1.4.2.1. Pupils will engage in the collaborative revision of texts with the teacher and/ or peers, even as they are given opportunities to revise their drafts independently.

1.4.2.2. Pupils will also apply knowledge of metalanguage in the editing of texts from Middle Primary.

1.4.2.3. At the Secondary levels, teachers will continue to guide pupils in the review and revision process to help them achieve greater relevance, focus, clarity as well as precise expression of meaning in their writing.

1.5. GRAMMAR

1.5.1. Develop knowledge of grammar for the purposeful use of language at the word, phrase, sentence and text levels.

1.5.1.1. Use metalanguage for learning and talking about language structures and language in use

1.5.1.2. Apply knowledge of grammatical rules at word and phrase levels

1.5.1.3. Apply knowledge of grammatical rules at sentence level

1.5.1.4. Apply knowledge of grammatical rules at word, phrase and sentence levels

1.5.1.5. Show understanding of how the purposeful use of language shapes meaning in texts

1.5.2. Secondary Grammar Practices

1.5.2.1. Teachers will continue to teach and reinforce grammatical structures, items and rules, paying special attention to low progress learners and making every effort to address recurring errors made by pupils during the writing and representation of texts.

1.5.2.2. Teachers will help pupils consolidate their understanding of how these items and structures work as they review, revise and edit their work.

1.5.2.3. By the Secondary levels, pupils will develop greater awareness and control in their use of language to discover and articulate many of the more complex relationships in the workings of the language.

1.6. Vocabulary

1.6.1. Use metalanguage in building and using vocabulary, and develop knowledge about vocabulary for the purposeful use of rich language

1.6.1.1. Use metalanguage in building and using vocabulary

1.6.1.2. Demonstrate a rich vocabulary that supports the development of listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and representing skills

1.6.1.3. Use words appropriate for purpose, audience, context and culture

1.6.2. Secondary Vocabulary Practices

1.6.2.1. Teachers will revisit, reinforce and teach at increasing levels of difficulty the various items and learner strategies for the development of rich vocabulary.

1.6.2.2. To expand pupils’ vocabulary, teachers will also expose pupils to a wide variety of literary and informational/ functional texts through wide reading and viewing, as well as reading and viewing in the content areas.

1.6.2.3. Reading appropriate selections of literary texts exposes pupils to rich language as opposed to everyday speech.

2. English as A Second Language

2.1. Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for information and understanding

2.1.1. Students learning English as a second language will use English to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information for content area learning and personal use

2.1.2. They will develop and use skills and strategies appropriate to their level of English proficiency to

2.1.2.1. collect data, facts, and ideas;

2.1.2.2. discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations;

2.1.2.3. and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically

2.1.3. Intermidate Activity: Interview and debate

2.1.3.1. Students brainstorm environmental issues relevant to the school context, such as paper recycling, air pollution caused by local traffic, or waste removal, and decide on one to investigate.

2.1.3.2. In pairs, they prepare and conduct interviews with different school personnel.

2.1.3.3. Students present their information and identify different points of view on the issue.

2.1.3.4. After the pairs organize the information they collected, the teacher assigns pairs of students a point of view, and stages a debate, following traditional debate rules.

2.1.3.5. After the debate, students vote on which point of view was argued most convincingly, using a rubric of criteria

2.2. Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for literary response, enjoyment, and expression

2.2.1. Students learning English as a second language will use English for self-expression, artistic creation, and participation in popular culture.

2.2.2. They will develop and use skills and strategies appropriate to their level of English proficiency to listen to

2.2.2.1. read, and respond to oral, written, and electronically produced texts and performances,

2.2.2.2. relate texts and performances to their own lives and other works, and

2.2.2.3. develop an understanding of the diverse social, historical, and cultural dimensions the texts and performances represent.

2.2.3. Beginner Activity: Concept Map

2.2.3.1. On a concept map, students brainstorm the characteristics that make a person a good friend.

2.2.3.2. Students listen to teacher read aloud a brief poem on friendship.

2.2.3.3. Students then add to the concept map any new ideas about friendship that the poem may prompt.

2.2.3.4. Each student then writes a brief description of his/her own best friend, using the vocabulary generated on the concept map.

2.3. Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for critical analysis and evaluation

2.3.1. Students learning English as a second language will use English to express their opinions and judgments on experiences, messages, ideas, information, and issues from a variety of perspectives.

2.3.2. They will develop and use skills and strategies appropriate to their level of English proficiency to reflect on and analyze experiences, messages, ideas, information, and issues presented by others using a variety of established criteria.

2.3.3. Advanced Activity: Movie Review

2.3.3.1. Students read two differing reviews of a film viewed in class.

2.3.3.2. Following these models, students in small groups write a review in which they provide a summary of the plot, information about the characters, and comments on the effectiveness of the acting, directing, and other features.

2.3.3.3. They make their own recommendation about whether or not to see the film, and present their review to the class.

2.3.3.4. One review is submitted to the school newspaper.

2.4. Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for classroom and social interaction

2.4.1. Students learning English as a second language will use English to interact with others in social and classroom situations.

2.4.2. They will develop and use skills and strategies appropriate to their level of English proficiency to communicate effectively with regard to audience, purpose, and setting.

2.4.3. Intermediate Activity: School Safety

2.4.3.1. Students choose a safety procedure from one of their content-area classes.

2.4.3.2. In small groups, they prepare a handout describing the procedure, using step-by-step directions.

2.4.3.3. They refer to the handout while demonstrating the procedure to the class.

2.5. Students will demonstrate cross-cultural knowledge and understanding

2.5.1. Students will demonstrate cross-cultural knowledge and sensitivity in communicating with others of varied social, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds.

2.5.2. They will develop and use culturally appropriate behaviors, and a knowledge of local and U.S. cultures and practices, in their interactions with others in their new cultural environment.

2.5.3. Beginner Activity: Photo Sharing

2.5.3.1. Teacher and students bring in photos of an important event in their lives or in the lives of their families.

2.5.3.2. Teacher models and students later give an oral presentation about the photo to the whole class.

2.5.3.3. With teacher support, students create categories for the photos, using a list-group-label method.

2.5.3.4. Students write a brief description of their photo, and categorize it according to the labels created in class.