Activity 1: Student Assessments

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Activity 1: Student Assessments by Mind Map: Activity 1: Student Assessments

1. Diagnostic

1.1. Definition: diagnostic assessment involves the gathering and careful evaluation of detailed data using students’ knowledge and skills in a given learning area. Purpose: The data assist teachers to plan for appropriate pedagogy and targeted learning to more effectively scaffold the learning needs of their students. A disadvantage is that the scores can be skewed. If a students scores high on a benchmark test in the beginning of the year, it makes it hard to show significant gains during the end of year testing. This is an example of “of learning” and an example of this assessment would be the Scantron Testing that the Archdiocese of Washington conducts twice a year.

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2. Performance-Based

2.1. Definition: Performance task assessment lists are assessment tools that provide the structure students need to work more independently and to encourage them to pay attention to the quality of their work. Assessment lists also enable the teacher to efficiently provide students with information on the strengths and weaknesses of their work. A disadvantage would be that some students do not test well, so this form of assessment may not give you a true read on whether all students have mastered the skill. This type of assessment is a “for” Learning example. An example would be: (At several specified times during the school day, students observe and count, for a set length of time, the number of cars and other vehicles going through an intersection near the school.) Say to students: “The police department is considering a traffic light or a crossing guard at the intersection near your school. Your help is needed to make graphs that show how many vehicles go through that intersection at certain times of the day. Excellent graphs will be sent to the Chief of Police.”

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3. Summative

3.1. Definition: are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year. One of the disadvantages I found in my research is that debates and disagreements tend to center on issues of fairness and effectiveness, especially when summative-assessment results are used for high-stakes purposes. This type of assessment is an example of “of learning” A few examples would be: End-of-unit or chapter tests and end-of-term or semester tests. Standardized tests that are used to for the purposes of school accountability, college admissions (e.g., the SAT or ACT)

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4. Formative

4.1. Definition: including diagnostic testing is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment. Purpose: Some advantages would be: Students are more motivated to learn and take responsibility for their own learning. Students can become users of assessment alongside the teacher. Students learn valuable lifelong skills such as self-evaluation, self-assessment, and goal setting. This assessment is “for Learning”. Example: A science supervisor looks at the previous year's student test results to help plan teacher workshops during the summer vacation, to address areas of weakness in student performance.

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5. High-stakes

5.1. Definition: In general, “high stakes” means that test scores are used to determine punishments (such as sanctions, penalties, funding reductions, negative publicity), accolades (awards, public celebration, positive publicity), advancement (grade promotion or graduation for students), or compensation (salary increases or bonuses for administrators and teachers). Some arguments for this type of assessment include: That it motivates students to work harder, learn more, and take the tests more seriously, which can promote higher student achievement. Also, Holds teachers accountable for ensuring that all students learn what they are expected to learn. This is a “for learning” example. An example of this type of assessment would be Scantron testing that schools in the Archdiocese of Washington complete twice a year.

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6. Portfolio

6.1. Definition: Portfolio assessment gives both teachers and students a controlled space to document, review, and analyze content leaning. In short, portfolios are a collection of student work that allows assessment by providing evidence of effort and accomplishments in relation to specific instructional goals (Jardine, 1996). The benefits of portfolio assessment are numerous. To begin with, they are a more individualized way of assessing students and have the advantage of demonstrating a wide range of work. They may also be used in conjunction with other types of required assessments, such as standardized or norm referenced tests. Often, portfolio contents are selected collaboratively, allowing students an opportunity to make decisions about their work and encouraging them to set goals regarding what has been accomplished and what needs further work, an important skill that may serve them well in life endeavors. This is an “of learning” type of assessment and an example would be evaluation portfolios. Evaluation portfolios may vary substantially in their content. Their basic purpose, however, remains to exhibit a series of evaluations over a course and the learning or accomplishments of the student in regard to previously determined criteria or goals. Essentially, this type of portfolio documents tests, observations, records, or other assessment artifacts required for successful completion of the course.

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7. Authentic

7.1. Definition: the measurement of "intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful," as contrasted to multiple choice standardized tests. Some advantages of this type of assessment are: Authentic assessment uses tasks that reflect normal classroom activities (real life learning); authentic assessment focuses on higher order thinking skills (Bloom's Taxonomy); authentic assessment embeds assessment in the classroom context (real world contexts); requires active performance to demonstrate understanding (kinesthetic, being involved). This is an “of learning” type of assessment. Examples may include but are not limited to: performance of the skills, or demonstrating use of a particular knowledge. Simulations and role plays. As well as studio portfolios, strategically selecting items.

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8. Self-Assessment

8.1. Definition: Assessment or evaluation of oneself or one’s actions and attitudes, in particular, of one’s performance at a job or learning task considered in relation to an objective standard. Advantages include : Encourages student involvement and responsibility. Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work. Allows students to see and reflect on their peers’ assessment of their contribution. Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills Some disadvantages are: Potentially increases lecturer workload by needing to brief students on the process as well as on-going guidance on performing self evaluation. Self evaluation has a risk of being perceived as a process of presenting inflated grades and being unreliable. Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment. This is a “of learning” assessment. An example would be students correct and grade their homework based off of the answers that are projected on to the board.

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9. Peer Assessment

9.1. Definition: is a process whereby students or their peers grade assignments or tests based on a teacher’s benchmarks. Rubrics are often used in conjunction with Self- and Peer-Assessment. Some advantages of this type of assessment are: Agreed marking criteria means there can be little confusion about assignment outcomes and expectations. Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills. Provides more relevant feedback to students as it is generated by their peers. Can help reduce the ‘free rider’ problem as students are aware that their contribution will be graded by their peers. While some disadvantages include: Students will have a tendency to award everyone the same mark. Students may be reluctant to make judgements regarding their peers. Additional briefing time can increase a lecturer’s workload. This is an “of learning” example. Example: Students will trade math notebooks with someone sitting at their table. Each student will check and correct the others homework from the previous night.

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