Outbreak of WWII in Asia Pacific

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Outbreak of WWII in Asia Pacific by Mind Map: Outbreak of WWII in Asia Pacific

1. crisis in japan

1.1. Economic Crisis

1.1.1. Rapid population increase. Shortage of land. Shortage of food.

1.1.2. The Great Depression- Japan exports were affected. Causing economic depression in Japan.

1.2. Overpopulation

1.2.1. Population grew larger, the demand for housing, goods and products increased.

1.2.2. Japanese militarism played a part in expansionist ambitions and aggressive attitude.

1.3. Growth of military influence ins Japanese politics

1.3.1. May 1932, Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai was assassinated. Ending the parliamentary rule in Japan

1.3.2. Martial law was declared. Military effectively controlled the government.

1.3.3. Politicians and emperor granted concessions to prevent further political violence.

2. Japan's response to world developments in the 1930s

2.1. Attack on Pearl Harbor

2.2. JAP's 1st step towards waging war in Asia Pacific

2.3. 1. American foreign policy changes

2.3.1. Changes on American foreign policy helped to encourage the Japanese to attack Pearl Harbor

2.3.2. USA adopted an isolationist policy in the 1930s, did not get involved in conflicts unless it involoved their interest directly.

2.3.3. Thus, JAP expected to have free hand in war against China

2.3.4. American sided with China. President Roosevelt changed his foreign policy

2.3.5. Felt that there is a need for aggressor nations to be 'quarantined', used JAP's aggression to justify military aid to China

2.3.6. Cancelled 1911 commercial treaty with JAP, thus placing restrictions on JAP trade with USA.

2.3.7. Japan occupied Vietnam in 1940, Roosevelt imposed trade embargo on JAP. Formally banned export of steel, scrap iron and fuel to JAP (essential for war efforts in China)

2.3.8. This made control of oil-rich countries in SEA even more attractive

2.3.9. USA not formally participate, but actions indirectly made her one of JAP's enemy

2.4. War in Europe

2.5. Situation in Europe contibuted to JAP's decision to wage was in Asia Pacific.

2.6. Outbreak of was in Europe in 1939 left BRI and FRA critically weak and depleted

2.7. Created opportunity for JAP to take place of declining powers. E.g. BRI colonies of Malaya and SG

2.8. When they were preoccupied with Europe, SEA lefft defenceless

3. Japanese Expansionist Foreign Policy


3.1.1. Success of the Japanese expansion encouraged plans for the creation of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, through which Japan would dominate the whole of East Asia and Southeast Asia.

3.1.2. The Plan: to expel the European colonial powers from these regions and replace them with satellite states loyal to Japan. (These would be defended by the Japanese military and governed through local elites aided by Japanese advisors.) The Manchurian model of Japanese rule would be extended to the rest of East Asia as well as to Southeast Asia.

3.1.3. The Japanese sought to expand into SEA due to the availability of important raw materials there. Japan was especially interested in rubber and oil from Malaya and Indonesia. These resources were crucial to its military machine and were lacking in Korea, Taiwan and Manchuria.

3.1.4. Many of SEA wanted independance from European rule and Japan promised to 'liberate' SEA from European colonial rule with popular slogans. They perceived the proposed 'co-prosperity sphere' with optimism, in the hope of achieving independence.

3.1.5. To further support Japan's expansionist efforts.

3.2. acquire resources (Japan had limited resources and had to rely on trade with other countries in order to import essential resources)

3.3. restrictive trade practices made it difficult for Japan to obtain the raw materials it needed from markets it did not directly control.

3.4. take control of territories near Japan restrictive trade practices made it difficult for Japan to obtain the raw materials it needed from markets it did not directly control.

3.5. take control of territories near Japan (JUSTIFICATION: necessary in order to support their supply of raw materials and resources.)

3.6. Control of TAIWAN allowed the Japanese access to an important source of sugar. KOREA was annexed to defend the Japanese isles and provide a source of cotton and wool. MANCHURIA was occupied to defend Korea, and to provide a source of minerals and wheat, as well as land for the growing population.

3.7. Rise of Militarisation in Japanese political leadership also steered Japanese foreign policy towards expansionism, fueled by Japan's desire for equality and recognition among the world powers. (Previous involvement in conflicts led to an increase in confidence in the military, Control of territories allowed Japan to build its own empire and its success encouraged further conquest.

4. Weakness of the League of Nations

4.1. ineffective in dealing with Japan's increasingly aggressive actions

4.2. Mukden incident and invasion of Manchuria

4.2.1. Manchuria was both economically and strategically important to Japan Source of raw materials and resources needed for Japan's growing industries provided Japan with a market to sell their products allowed Japan to defend its interests in Korea placed in a strong position for future expansion into China (Manchuria geographical location)

4.2.2. On 18 September 1931, a bomb exploded near the Japanese-owned railway near Mukden Japanese army blamed the Chinese nationalists and demanded that the Japanese government take action to protect Japanese interests in Manchuria provided an opportunity for a military takeover of Manchuria full-scale invasion of Manchuria was launched on 19 September 1931 China was too preoccupied with its own civil war to resist the attack Japanese army established a satellite state called Manchukuo , under the symbolic leadership of the last emperor of China, Puyi In September 1932, the Japanese government recognised the new state by signing a treaty with Manchukuo, placing the new country under Japanese military control China and the great powers refused to recognise the new state of Manchukuo, claiming that it rightfully belonged to China The League responded by commissioning an investigation and a report to the assembly chaired by the British Earl of Lytton The report(Lytton report), found that the Japanese army's response to the Mukden Incident went far beyond self-defence a motion was raised to at the League of Nations to condemn Japan as a n aggressor, and the League refused to recognise Manchukuo the Japanese delegation walked out the assembly and the Japanese government formally withdraw from the League Of Nations soon after. League was thus unable to enforce its decision upon Japan

4.3. Second Sino-Japanese war

4.3.1. from 1932, there were instances of fighting between Japanese and Chinese troops in Northern China, which allowed Japan to increase their control over Manchuria

4.3.2. Tensions escalated between China and Japan

4.3.3. broke out in 1937 after the Marco Polo Bridge incident, resulting in a full-scale invasion of China

4.3.4. Japanese troops stationed in the vicinity of the Marco Polo Bridge near the town of Wanping outside Beijing were carrying out training exercise.

4.3.5. A few shots fired, prompting the Chinese troops there to return fire in defence

4.3.6. Thinking that the Chinese might have captured him, the Japanese demanded to be able to search the town

4.3.7. The Chinese said that they would conduct the search, with one Japanese officer accompanying them.

4.3.8. The Japanese troops tried to force their way into Wanping, but failed.

4.3.9. Both sides increased their military strength in the area, and despite attempts to resolve the issue, the heightened tensions between the Japanese and Chinese resulted in a full-scale invasion of China after the incident.

4.3.10. Although China appealed to the League of Nations to intervene, the Western powers were not willing to get involved

4.3.11. The Western powers were occupied with developments in Europe

4.3.12. The Western powers only began to provide aid to China when the extent of Japanese violence in the Nanking Massacre was made known internationally.

4.4. League reacted slowly and was not able to force Japan to withdraw