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Ethnographic Methods by Mind Map: Ethnographic Methods
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Ethnographic Methods


Any Field Context

Operationalization, Untitled, Untitled, Untitled, Untitled, How to do it, Unit of Analysis, Ecological Fallacy, Mismatch in unit of analyses, Rule of Thumb, Measure at the highest level possible, Collect data at lowest unit of analysis possible, Quality of Measurement Instruments, Reliability, Getting the same answer by using an instrument to measure something more than once, Precision, How well you can resolve differences given the measure (e.g. decimal points), Accuracy, Determining Innaccuracy and Bias, Systematic Bias, Correlated with gold standard, Often related to problematic instrument, Can make systematic corrections, Unknown Bias, Not correlated with a gold standard, Cannot be corrected for, Fatal, Validity, Accuracy and trustworthiness of instruments, data, and findings, Level of Measurement, Nominal, Untitled, e.g. religious affiliation, Two or more levels, Can be mutually exclusive or exhaustive, Ordinal, Values can be rank-ordered, e.g.strongly agree, neutral, strongly disagree, Untitled, Interval, Like ordinal, but distances between attributes are meaningful, e.g. IQ score, Ratio, Intervals that have a zero point to indicate absence, e.g. age, income, Dimensionality, Unidimensional - One scale of meaning, Multidimensional - Two ore more scales of meaning, Definition, An exact set of instructions on what you need to do and how to measure a variable that has been conceptually defined

Validity Testing, Face Validity, Based on consensus, until a valid instrument is proven otherwise, "It seems reasonable", Content Validity, Instrument has appropriate content to capture a complex concept, Does the measure reflect the construct?, Logical validity, Are all of the relevant domains of knowledge covered on a test?, Are all symptoms of a syndrome present?, Construct Validity, Close fit between construct measured and actual observations made with the instrument, Can you make inferences about the construct based on your measurement?, Does it measure what you think it does?, Criterion Validity, Close fit between the measure it produces and other instruments already established as valid, Parsimony, Known Group Comparison, Is it Predictive?, "Gold Standard", Known group comparison - you know how members of certain groups should score, Predictive validity - should predict what you know it ought to know

Determining Cause and Effect, Do they covary?, Correlation or association, Determined statistically or qualitatively, Is covariation spurious?, Control for other variables, Check literature, Check logic, Check with colleagues, Is time order logical?, Can't occur at the same time, Difficult if relationship appears circular, Do we have a theory that explains this covariation?, Start with primative axiom, Deduce results, Untitled, What is a theory?, Idea about how things work, Nomothetic, Broad theory that applies to many context, Ideographic, Applies narrowly to one cultural context, Independent Variables, Not affected by the values of the dependent variables, Logically precedes dependent variables, Dependent Variables, Some way related to independent variables


Iterative Process