Development

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Development by Mind Map: Development

1. Skinner

1.1. Extinction

1.2. Positive Reinforcment

1.3. Operant Conditioning

1.3.1. big bang theory, sheldon trying it on penny

1.4. punishment

1.4.1. decrease or suppress a behaviour

1.4.1.1. an undesirable thing added to environment

1.4.2. does not always work

1.4.3. effective if a behaviour change happens in ~5 punishments

1.4.3.1. clarity

1.5. reinforcment

1.5.1. increase a behviour

1.5.2. effective if increase in 5 reinforcments

2. Piaget

2.1. Humans learn and develop a system of equilibrium-intellectual balance

2.1.1. This has held true, while much of his other ideas have been refuted

2.1.1.1. counting squares

2.1.2. equilibrium in classroom

2.1.2.1. stability/positivity

2.1.2.2. good learning environment

2.1.2.3. will have to learn what works from own personal theory

2.1.2.3.1. formative assessment

2.1.2.3.2. summative assessment

2.1.2.3.3. setting guidelines/establishing classroom environment

2.1.2.3.4. teachers come to solutions before agreeing on questions

2.1.2.3.5. teachers are lifelong learners

2.1.2.3.6. Melabene

2.1.3. disequilibrium in classroom

2.1.3.1. negativity/instability

2.1.3.2. bad learning environment

2.2. 4 stages of human development

2.2.1. Formal operational (13-adult)

2.2.2. Concrete operational (7-12)

2.2.3. Pre-operational (2-7)

2.2.4. Sensory Motor (0-2)

3. 5 stages of development

3.1. Prenatal

3.2. Infancy (0-2years)

3.3. Early childhood (2-6years)

3.4. Middle childhood (6-11years)

3.5. Adolescence (11-adult)

4. Erickson

4.1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1.5)

4.2. Autonomy vs. Doubt (1.5 - 4)

4.3. Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6)

4.4. Industry vs. Inferiority (7-12)

4.5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18)

4.6. Final 3 stages in adulthood

5. 3 Domains

5.1. Physical

5.2. Cognitive

5.3. Emotional

6. Vygotsky

6.1. Zone of proximal development

6.1.1. Students can be guided through a task that they wouldn't otherwise be able to do, with teacher assistance. Hopefully the student is eventually able to do the task on their own.

6.1.2. Requires one-on-one time often

6.1.3. We shouldn't just look at what students can do on their own, but also what they can do in a social setting

6.1.4. Reciprocal teaching

6.2. Scaffolding

6.2.1. Equipping learners with the tools to succeed

6.3. Nature more influential than nurture

7. Montessorri

7.1. positive reinforcement during sensitive period

8. Gazelle

8.1. Nature vs. Nurture - Genetic makeup vs. How you grow.

8.1.1. One way glass

9. Balbi

9.1. Attatchment Theory

10. Spock

10.1. Flexible affectionate parenting

10.2. Treat kids as individuals

11. Kholberg

11.1. About how people justify behaviours, not based on how moral people are.

11.1.1. behaviour is more predictable, consistent and predictable at higher levels

11.2. Heinz Dilema

11.3. 3 levels of moral development centered on justice

11.3.1. pre-conventional morality

11.3.1.1. Obedience and punishment orientation

11.3.1.1.1. how can i avoid punishment

11.3.1.2. self-interest orientation

11.3.1.2.1. what's in it for me

11.3.1.2.2. paying for a benefit

11.3.2. conventional morality

11.3.2.1. Interpersonal accord and conformity

11.3.2.1.1. social norms

11.3.2.1.2. the good boy/girl attitude

11.3.2.2. authority and social-order maintaining orientation

11.3.2.2.1. law and order morality

11.3.3. post-conventional morality

11.3.3.1. Social contract orientation

11.3.3.2. Universal ethical principles

11.3.3.2.1. principled conscience

11.3.4. Not fixed stages. Understanding of each option is retained as you go up levels.

12. Brazelton's Neonatal Behaviour Assessment Scale

12.1. used in first four months of the baby's life

12.2. 46 different criteria

13. humour

13.1. benign/violation ven diagram video

13.2. must be the right balance of tame and risky

13.3. laugh to indicate a situation that seems wrong is actualy ok

13.4. easier to make humour after children can understand the abstract

14. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

15. language

15.1. the ability to marry speech and gestures

15.2. to identify peer group

15.3. understand that language skills are still developing when working with adolescents

15.4. foundational skill and you can't assume students have a background

16. Theory of Mind

16.1. hard to argue with those who don't understand others

16.1.1. amygdala - fight or flight

16.2. Understanding Others perspectives

16.2.1. Making sense of social behaviour

16.2.2. Making Sense of feelings and emotions

16.2.3. making sense of communication

16.3. Brain development

16.3.1. Fetal alcohol syndrome

16.3.1.1. mind like a 3 yr old

16.3.2. we are our brains

16.3.2.1. full size as a teenager, but still developing prefrontal cortex

16.3.2.2. atypical brain development, typically in adolescence

16.3.2.2.1. schizophrenia ~18 no obvious malfunction..

16.3.2.2.2. Bipolar

16.3.2.2.3. teenage brain is clumsy

16.3.2.3. risky play

16.3.2.3.1. varies depending on age...gets riskier as we get older

16.3.2.3.2. rules/punishment/boundaries

16.3.2.3.3. prefrontal cortex

16.3.2.3.4. gender differences

16.3.2.3.5. resiliency

16.3.2.3.6. protective factors

16.4. confabulation

16.4.1. different than lying, which implies hiding something

17. lying

17.1. a developmental milestone

18. Bruner - Experiential learning

19. Inquiry Based Learning

19.1. engaging curiosity

19.2. pyramid

20. Maslow's Hierarchy

20.1. needs based

21. Bloom's Taxonomy

21.1. Creating

21.2. Evaluating

21.3. Analyzing

21.4. Applying

21.5. Understanding

21.6. Remembering

22. Bandura

22.1. Social Learning

22.1.1. children learn what they see

23. My Classroom Inquiry question

23.1. Why does the class seem unengaged in science 9?

23.1.1. Some students are just entering adolescence

23.1.1.1. Shaky identity

23.1.1.1.1. Ericksons Fidelity stage

23.1.1.1.2. They are looking for leadership and not finding it?

23.1.1.1.3. New parts of their brain are just coming online

23.1.1.1.4. Disequilibrium

23.1.1.1.5. Kholberg's pre-conventional stage (self-interest)

23.1.1.1.6. Self-esteem issues

23.1.1.2. Some have definitely gone through it, quite a long time ago

23.1.1.2.1. Conventional Morality (kholberg)

23.1.2. Students are tired

23.1.2.1. May not be sleeping well

23.1.2.2. May have busy extra-curricular schedule

23.1.2.3. some take the bus

23.1.2.4. some students don't learn as well in the morning

23.1.2.4.1. Time of day has a large effect on performance

23.1.2.4.2. Wahlstrom

23.1.2.4.3. Gail in class

23.1.2.5. students are going to bed later as a response to puberty

23.1.3. Some students are bored by the assignments/material

23.1.3.1. They are only really doing summative assessment

23.1.3.1.1. Worksheets

23.1.3.1.2. Textbook questions

23.1.3.1.3. Tests

23.1.3.2. I've talked to students who say they are done their work much faster than the other students and are sitting there twiddling their thumbs

23.1.3.3. Some students are checking their phones or socializing instead of doing the class work

23.1.3.4. It's not catering to their learning style

23.1.3.4.1. mostly reading and writing, limited in visual and kinesthetic modes of learning

23.1.4. How can I help these students?

23.1.4.1. Be mindful of time of day and use more engaging methods when class is earlier on in the day to motivate

23.1.4.2. Zygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development

23.1.4.2.1. Some students are much weaker than their peers

23.1.4.3. Multimodal learning

23.1.4.3.1. make lessons which engage multiple learning styles when I get to the teaching

23.1.4.4. Scaffolding novel ways of teaching

23.1.4.4.1. Employ social learning and encourage collaboration

23.1.4.4.2. Inquiry-based learning

23.1.4.4.3. Cross-Curricular connections

23.1.4.4.4. Connections to the real world

23.1.4.4.5. Classroom Management

23.1.4.5. Humour

23.1.4.5.1. Age appropriate to their somewhat recent transition to adolescence (grade 9) and development in the real of the abstract

23.1.4.5.2. Careful in a classroom setting as I'm a professional and things I say will go home to parents

23.1.4.5.3. benign/violation balance

23.1.4.6. Equilibrium

23.1.4.6.1. I will be teaching differently than my teacher and so students will be somewhat in disequilibrium

23.1.4.7. Relax/Have Fun

23.1.4.7.1. I found that I got too stressed initially and couldn't think clearly

23.1.4.7.2. My sponsor teacher has told me that students respond well when the teacher is passionate about the material

23.1.4.8. Co-ordinate with my co-teaching group

23.2. Why are some students engaged?

23.2.1. pre=conventional morality

23.2.1.1. good grades make me feel good

23.2.1.1.1. home life - rewards of parents'praise

23.2.2. Conventional morality

23.2.2.1. good girl/good boy attitude

23.2.3. Maslow's hierachy

23.2.3.1. Self-actualization

23.2.3.1.1. Doing what they need to do to acheive success

23.2.3.1.2. Further along in development (girls in this class generally)

24. Math

24.1. shapes

24.2. scaffolding very necessary here

24.2.1. add/subtract

24.2.2. multiply

24.2.3. divide

24.2.4. fractions

24.2.5. abstract (x, y)

25. ELA

25.1. speech

25.2. reading simple words

25.3. Writing

25.4. lends itself well to group work

25.4.1. novel disscussion

25.4.2. elements of drama

25.4.3. presentation

25.4.4. seems to be very open in required content

25.4.4.1. whatever teachers want to teach almost, just that they have to prepare students for grade 10/12 provincials

25.5. Social Studies

25.6. Drama

25.7. Caters well to hands-on learners

26. tech

26.1. cup

26.2. utensil

26.3. bowl+utensil

26.4. pencil + paper

26.5. tablet

26.6. computer

26.7. programming

26.8. hacking

27. science

27.1. basic observation

27.2. asking questions

27.3. critical thinking

27.4. lends itself well to inquiry based learning

27.4.1. restricted with the amount of content there is to get through

27.4.1.1. partly the old curriculum

27.4.1.2. teaching to provincial exams

27.4.1.3. teaching to prepare students for university science courses

27.4.2. labs

27.5. Skills over concepts learned