Disabilities under IDEA

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Disabilities under IDEA by Mind Map: Disabilities under IDEA

1. Autism

1.1. Three areas of life that are affected by Autism:

1.2. Social interaction

1.3. Communication -- both verbal and nonverbal

1.4. Behaviors and interests

2. Developmental Delay

2.1. DD may include problems with:

2.2. language or speech

2.3. vision

2.4. movement -- motor skills

2.5. social and emotional skills

2.6. thinking -- cognitive skills

3. Deaf individuals may use sign language, read lips, use a combination of both, or neither.

3.1. ...Which can make the following tasks difficult:

3.2. Learning by lectures

3.3. Participating in classroom discussions

3.4. Giving oral presentations

3.5. Taking oral exams

3.6. Note taking

3.7. Watching educational films

4. Difficulty taking tests and exams

5. Deaf-Blindness

5.1. Deaf-Blindness means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

5.1.1. the following could be potential issues in class:

5.1.2. Understanding classroom lectures

5.1.3. Participating in class discussions

5.1.4. Presenting oral reports

5.1.5. Fulfilling reading assignments

6. Deafness

7. Emotional Distrubance

7.1. Six types of emotional disturbances: anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, conduct disorders, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) psychotic disorders

8. Hearing Impairment

8.1. A student with a hearing impairment may experience difficulty in:

8.2. the subjects of grammar, spelling and vocabulary

8.3. taking notes while listening to lectures

8.4. participating in classroom discussions

8.5. watching educational videos

8.6. presenting oral reports

9. Intellectual Disability

9.1. An intellectual disability creates many educational challenges that must be overcome. These include:

9.2. Trouble understanding new concepts

9.3. Inappropriate behavior

9.4. Limited vocabulary

9.5. Difficulty accomplishing complex tasks

10. Multiple Disabilites

10.1. Common educational challenges revolve around the following issues:

10.2. Finding a setting suitable to the child’s intelligence level

10.3. A child’s ability to effectively communicate with teachers, support staff and peers

10.4. A student’s capability to function in the classroom

10.5. Assessing and compensating for visual or hearing impairments

11. Orthopedic Impairment

11.1. Possible academic barriers include:

11.2. Non-accessible transportation

11.3. Trouble maneuvering around the classroom

11.4. Difficulty navigating school hallways

11.5. Earning mandated physical education credit

11.6. Communicating effectively

12. Other Health Impairment

12.1. The academic barriers related to AD/HD involve trouble concentrating and difficulty sitting still. The vast majority of students served in the OHI category have AD/HD. Since that disorder was included in this category, the number of students labeled OHI has grown significantly.

13. Specific Learning Disability

13.1. specific learning disabilities commonly affect skills in the areas of:

13.2. Reading (called dyslexia)

13.3. Writing (called dysgraphia)

13.4. Listening

13.5. Speaking

13.6. Reasoning

13.7. Math (called dyscalculia)

14. Speech or Language Impairment

14.1. Some of these challenges might involve:

14.2. Communicating effectively with classmates and teachers

14.3. Understanding and/or giving oral presentations

14.4. Participating in classroom discussions

14.5. Attaining normalcy within a group

15. Traumatic Brain Injury

15.1. The above issues lead to some unique educational challenges, such as those listed below.

15.2. Problems with following complex directions

15.3. Difficulty learning new skills

16. Visual Impairment (including blindness)

16.1. Such challenges may entail:

16.2. Safely maneuvering around the classroom

16.3. Conceptualizing objects

16.4. Reading

16.5. Operating standard educational tools such as calculators and word processing software

17. Suggested Intervention/ Modifications

18. move about safely and independently, which is known as orientation and mobility (O&M);

19. use assistive technologies designed for children with visual impairments;

20. use what residual vision they have effectively and efficiently; and

21. read and write in Braille, if determined appropriate by the IEP team of the child after a thorough evaluation. (11)

22. Give the student more time to finish schoolwork and tests.

23. Give directions one step at a time. For tasks with many steps, it helps to give the student written directions.

24. Show the student how to perform new tasks. Give examples to go with new ideas and concepts.

25. Have consistent routines. This helps the student know what to expect. If the routine is going to change, let the student know ahead of time.

26. Check to make sure that the student has actually learned the new skill. Give the student lots of opportunities to practice the new skill.

27. Show the student how to use an assignment book and a daily schedule. This helps the student get organized.

28. Realize that the student may get tired quickly. Let the student rest as needed. Reduce distractions.

29. Keep in touch with the student’s parents. Share information about how the student is doing at home and at school.

30. Be flexible about expectations. Be patient. Maximize the student’s chances for success.

31. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist;

32. amplification systems;

33. services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language;

34. favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading;

35. captioned films/videos;

36. assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction;

37. instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language; and

38. counseling.

39. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist;

40. amplification systems;

41. services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language;

42. favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading;

43. captioned films/videos;

44. assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction;

45. instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language; and

46. counseling.