Special Education Categories

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Special Education Categories by Mind Map: Special Education Categories

1. Autism Spectrum Disorder

1.1. Strategies

1.1.1. Make sure directions are given step-by- step, verbally, visually, and by providing physical supports or prompts, as needed by the student.

1.1.2. Find out what the student’s strengths and interests are and emphasize them.

1.1.3. Build opportunities for the student to have social and collaborative interactions throughout the regular school day. Provide support, structure, and lots of feedback

1.1.4. Work together with the student’s parents and other school personnel to create and implement an educational plan tailored to meet the student’s needs

1.2. Case Study

1.2.1. I taught a Mandarin 6th grade class. One of my students was autistic. He was higly functional and very skilled, however his social skills were often a struggle and his difficulty following instructions. At the beginning of the year he had an inclusion teacher with him at all times. However, their relationship was not quite strong and he was not receiving appropriate support. I asked the inclusion teacher not to come to my class anymore and let me intervene more directly. The outcome was very positive and he ended up being one of the top students in the class, with very few accommodations (usually more time to complete assignments). His memory skills were simply amazing and he passed a Chinese Proficiency Test with really high scores.

2. Deaf-Blindness

2.1. Student Aids/ Accommodations

2.1.1. Assistive Listening Devices (ALDs)—a small microphone device worn by the instructor that increases the volume and clarity of the class lecture for the student who wears the device

2.1.2. Interpreters—relay information to and from the student and other people in the classroom

2.1.3. Notetakers—provide a written, Brailled, or taped secondary source of information during a class lecture

2.1.4. Readers—for students who have usable hearing and limited vision, this support service provider reads textbooks and other course materials.

3. Deafness

3.1. Educational Implications and Services

3.1.1. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist

3.1.2. amplification systems

3.1.3. services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language

3.1.4. favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading

3.1.5. captioned films/videos

3.1.6. assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction

4. Developmental Delay

4.1. Intervention Services

4.1.1. Assistive technology (devices a child might need)

4.1.2. Audiology or hearing services

4.1.3. Counseling and training for a family

4.1.4. Occupational therapy

4.1.5. Physical therapy

4.1.6. Speech/Language

4.1.7. Respite services

5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. Examples

5.1.1. anxiety disorders

5.1.2. bipolar disorder

5.1.3. conduct disorders

5.1.4. psychotic disorders

5.2. Support

5.2.1. develop social skills

5.2.2. increase self-awareness, self-control, and self-esteem

5.2.3. master academics

6. Hearing Loss

7. Intellectual Dissability

7.1. Educational Considerations

7.1.1. General education. It’s important that students with intellectual disabilities be involved in, and make progress in, the general education curriculum. That’s the same curriculum that’s learned by those without disabilities.

7.1.2. Supplementary aids and services. Given that intellectual disabilities affect learning, it’s often crucial to provide supports to students with ID in the classroom

7.1.3. Adaptive skills.

7.1.4. Transition planning. It’s extremely important for families and schools to begin planning early for the student’s transition into the world of adulthood.

7.2. Tips for Teachers

7.2.1. Be as concrete as possible.

7.2.2. Break longer, new tasks into small steps.

7.2.3. Teach the student life skills such as daily living, social skills, and occupational awareness and exploration, as appropriate

7.2.4. Work together with the student’s parents and other school personnel to create and implement an IEP

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. Support in Major Life Activities

8.1.1. caring for oneself

8.1.2. performing manual tasks

8.1.3. walking, standing, lifting, and bending

8.1.4. speaking and communicating

8.2. Tips for Teachers

8.2.1. Know the needs, play to the strengths

8.2.2. Be familiar with the student’s IEP

8.2.3. Make modifications

8.2.4. Let the IEP team know what program supports or modifications you need

8.2.5. Consider assistive technology (AT).

8.2.6. Address behavior issues

8.2.7. Encourage the student’s independence

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. Study Case

9.1.1. Teachers constantly have students in their classrooms who have suffered some kind of injury that limits their performance in class. For instance, when I was teaching MS, s lot of my students had broken bones. This was a major problem when they broke an arm because they were unable to write and practice calligraphy. However, I found some apps that they could use on their iPads to take notes and practice calligraphy. The other difficult part about this is that I normally do games and hands on activities in class that require students to move, run and use their body in general. In this cases, whoever was injured would be assigned to supervise the game or even guide the other students through it.

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. Specific Health Impairments

10.1.1. ADD - AD/HD

10.1.2. Diabetes

10.1.3. Epilepsy

10.1.4. Heart Condicionts

10.1.5. Hemophilia

10.1.6. Leukemia

10.1.7. Rheumatic fever

10.2. Life and Services at School

10.2.1. Special feeding

10.2.2. clean intermittent catheterization

10.2.3. the management of a tracheostomy

10.2.4. administering and/or dispensing medications

10.2.5. planning for the safety of a child in school

10.2.6. conducting and/or promoting education and skills training for all (including the child) who serve as caregivers in the school setting

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. Tips and Resources for Teachers

11.2. Study Case

11.2.1. I had a student in 7th grade that had dyslexia. He struggled in my Mandarin class as he had problems taking notes, understanding the composition of characters and writing the basic strokes of the characters. I had several meetings with his parents, but unfortunately he was not diagnosed and his father (who was also dyslexic) denied his son's learning disability. Because he was not diagnosed and had no IEP I was not supposed to accommodate or modify the curriculum, so eventually I had to ask the counselor to transfer the student out of my class. This is a clear example of a situation where teachers report a student but parents decide not to take action and affect this kid's learning process and possibly his future in the academic world.

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. Kinds

12.1.1. Articulation

12.1.2. Fluency

12.1.3. Voice

12.1.4. Language

12.2. Educational Considerations

12.2.1. Identification of children with speech or language impairments

12.2.2. Diagnosis and appraisal of specific speech or language impairments;

12.2.3. Referral for medical or other professional attention necessary for the habilitation of speech or language impairments

12.2.4. Provision of speech and language services for the habilitation or prevention of communicative impairments

12.2.5. Counseling and guidance of parents, children, and teachers regarding speech and language impairments

12.3. Tips for Teachers

12.3.1. Learn as much as you can about the student’s specific disability

12.3.2. Recognize that you can make an enormous difference in this student’s life! Find out what the student’s strengths and interests are, and emphasize them

12.3.3. Make sure that needed accommodations are provided for classwork, homework, and testing.

12.3.4. Find out if your state or school district has materials or resources available to help educators address the learning needs of children with speech or language impairments

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. Educational Implications

13.1.1. thinking and reasoning

13.1.2. understanding words

13.1.3. remembering things

13.1.4. paying attention

13.1.5. solving problems

13.1.6. thinking abstractly

13.1.7. Behaving

13.1.8. seeing and/or hearing

13.2. Tips for teachers

13.2.1. Give the student more time to finish schoolwork and tests

13.2.2. Give directions one step at a time

13.2.3. Show the student how to perform new tasks

13.2.4. Have consistent routines

13.2.5. Show the student how to use an assignment book and a daily schedule.

13.2.6. Be flexible about expectations

14. Visual Impairment

14.1. Examples

14.1.1. strabismus

14.1.2. congenital cataracts

14.1.3. retinopathy of prematurity

14.1.4. retinitis pigmentosa

14.1.5. coloboma

14.1.6. ptic nerve hypoplasia

14.2. Educational Considerations

14.2.1. Students should learn how to move about safely and independently, which is known as orientation and mobility

14.2.2. use assistive technologies designed for children with visual impairments

14.2.3. use what residual vision they have effectively and efficiently

14.2.4. read and write in Braille