Contexts of Education

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Contexts of Education by Mind Map: Contexts of Education

1. Professional Identity

1.1. Theories of Education (Martin and Loomis, 2013)

1.1.1. Essentialism

1.1.1.1. Mastery of Basic Skills such as reading, writing, and computing. Education is primarily a preparation for working life (p. 48)

1.1.1.1.1. Personal reflections: This is a frustrating approach to education. It does two things, in my mind:

1.1.2. Perenialism

1.1.2.1. Learning based on the great works and ideas of the past. Curriculum based on what has stood the test of time. (p. 46)

1.1.2.1.1. Personal reflections: Although I still believe there is much to learn from the "great works" of the past, this approach tends to devalue the contemporary and, in certain ways, reduces the learners ability to accept and respond to new knowledge that is more pertinent to the contemporary world.

1.1.3. Progressivism

1.1.3.1. Emphasis on the individual child and rooting learning in the child's experience of the world. (p. 50-51)

1.1.3.1.1. Students should be free to develop naturally

1.1.3.1.2. Student interest should guide teaching

1.1.3.1.3. The teacher should be a guide not a task master

1.1.3.1.4. Student development should involve the whole student and should include multiple forms of growth including physical, mental, moral and social growth.

1.1.3.1.5. Schools should attend to the physical growth of students

1.1.3.1.6. School-home cooperation needed to meet the needs of students realistically

1.1.4. Existentialism

1.1.4.1. Focused on the existence of the individual. An individual's education is defined by the individual as the individuals defines his/herself. The teacher is a facilitator. Working to help the student find the appropriate materials to further their area of study.

1.1.4.1.1. Personal Reflections: An interesting approach. It may seem revolutionary or even unattainable, but, in my opinion, this approach isn't too far removed from the university model. Students choose their area of study and their major and minor based on interest and even within individual assignments students are able to tackle topics of their own choosing. It becomes even more similar in graduate studies, where a student develops a thesis based on a topic of interest and the adviser takes on the role of facilitator, guiding the student to the materials needed and making sure that the student's work meets a particular standard. Whether or not this is an economic and logistic possibility in the elementary and secondary systems is up for debate.

1.1.5. Social Reformationist

1.1.5.1. Education is focused on developing strategies for social reformation. Student's are given the tools and skills necessary to tackle issues in groups and as individuals. Student's produce change rather than being developed as parts of the existing status quo.

1.1.5.1.1. Personal Reflections: Another interesting approach to learning, and though I enjoy the idealism attached to such an approach, I have concerns. If a student's learning does not lead to a kind of positive social reform, would that make the student's learning a failed one?

1.2. Prior Knowledge/Perceptions of Teaching (Pugach)

1.2.1. Your own experience as a student

1.2.1.1. Personal Reflections: It is no surprise that my decision to teach has been due to a long line of excellent teachers who not only aided in my understanding of curriculum, but also helped me discover who I am as a person.

1.2.2. Your Autobiography

1.2.3. Your Beliefs

1.2.4. Your experience working in schools

1.2.5. Views of Teaching you have experienced in the media

1.3. You as Professional Teacher (Schreiber ATA Powerpoint)

1.3.1. Your Beliefs Related to teaching and Learning

1.3.2. Your professional repertoire of knowledge, skills, and abilities

1.3.3. Your wisdom gained from experience (pedagogical tact)

1.3.4. Legal/Legislated Frameworks

1.4. Education as Socialization (Taylor p. 164-166)

1.4.1. Education teaches more than just the curriculum; it teaches, implicitly, an array of acceptable social behaviors.

1.4.1.1. Personal Reflections: This, for me, is one the more important functions of public education, as opposed to home schooling. However, as teachers and parents it is important to note that not all behaviors learned at school are positive, and that teachers ought to try and guide these implicit socializations toward positive ideals.

2. Governing Bodies

2.1. ATA(Schreiber ATA ppt)

2.1.1. Professional Code of Conduct

2.1.1.1. "The teacher teaches in a manner that respects the dignity and rights of all persons without prejudice as to race, religious beliefs, colour, gender, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, physical characteristics, age, ancestry, place of origin, place of residence, socioeconomic background or linguistic background." (Code of Professional Conduct)

2.1.1.2. Teachers are bound by the code 24/7

2.1.1.3. Held to a higher standard of conduct than the general public

2.1.1.4. 18(1) A Teacher While Providing Instruction of Supervision must:

2.1.1.4.1. A) Provide Instruction competently to students

2.1.1.4.2. B) teach the course of study and education programs that are prescribed, approved or authorized pursuant to this act

2.1.1.4.3. C) promote goals and standards applicable to the provision of education adopted or approved pursuant to this act

2.1.1.4.4. d)encourage and foster learning in students

2.1.1.4.5. e) regularly evaluate students and periodically report the results of the evaluation to the students, the students' parents, and to the board

2.1.1.4.6. f) maintain under the direction of the principal, order and discipline among the students while they are in school or on the school grounds and while they are attending or participating in activities sponsored or approved by the board

2.1.1.4.7. g) subject to any applicable collective agreement and the teacher's contract of employment, carry out those duties that are assigned by the teacher by the principal or the board.

2.1.1.5. 18(2) At any time during the period of time that a teacher is under an obligation to the board to provide instruction or supervision or to carry out duties assigned by the teacher by a principal or the board, a teacher must, at the request of the board,

2.1.1.5.1. a) Participate in curriculum development and field testing of new curriculum;

2.1.1.5.2. b) develop, field test and mark provincial achievement tests and diploma examinations

2.1.2. Teaching Quality Standard (TQS)

2.1.2.1. Includes the KSAs that teachers must demonstrate for certification in Alberta

2.2. School Boards

2.3. Local Administration (Principals, VPs, etc.)

2.4. Public control of Education means: (Education Governance Ppt)

2.4.1. Taxation funds education

2.4.2. Standardized and uniform approaches to education policy (texts, curricula and teacher certification)

2.4.3. Equalization of education benefits regardless of geography

2.4.4. Free and accessible to all students

2.4.5. We want to maintain high standards for our educational system

3. Current Issues

3.1. Homosexuality And Bullying

3.1.1. "It is unrealistic to claim that violence of all forms can be eliminated from schools. Children, like adults, will inevitably fight over property, space, and stature; will form alliances against other students; will malign each other with verbal taunts; and will intimidate each other through physical aggression. In short, even exemplary educational leaders using inclusive anti-bullying programs will not have schools completely free of violence. Violence is culturally valorized, legitimized, and supported through discourses of nationalism, vengeance, male privilege, religious zeal, and in several media venues of entertainment. Schoolbased violence is, therefore, not adequately explained by theories or addressed by programs or policies that emphasize individual behaviours arising from discriminatory or hateful attitudes. Homophobia, like racism and sexism, manifests as violence perpetrated by an individual or group but links to larger social realms of politics, public policy, legal structures, and institutional processes" (Walton p. 30)

3.1.1.1. If addressing individual violence is an unrealistic choice for educators and administrators, than addressing attitudes about particular groups seems to be the only realistic answer. If the LGBTQ community is not seen to be as other by the general populous, then they will not be the subject of such violence.

3.1.1.1.1. Personal Reflections: In my youth I was poisoned against the LGBTQ community by false depictions of their livelihood and indeed their sincerity for life and love. However in High School I detested violence, and was part of a production of Moises Kaufman's "Laramie Project," a play about Matthew Shepard, a young man who was beaten to death for being homosexual and the impact his death had on the community of Laramie. At that point I thought that I had a fairly progressive viewpoint, i.e. that no person, even a homosexual, deserved to be the victim of such violence. However, this didn't stop me from saying insensitive and hurtful things about the LGBTQ community, and in the end, it was not until my perception of the community had completely changed that those actions really ceased. I believe that a change of heart is necessary for people to discontinue bullying and violence. When an individual sees the value of those around him/her, then violence ceases to be an option. A teacher can help facilitate that kind of a change.

3.1.1.2. Major difficulties obviously include backlash against the discussion of the LGBTQ community and their rights as made clear by Walton (p.28) and in the examples of our own community. (The ATA voted against discussing LGBTQ rights on Monday November 16th 2015.)

3.1.2. "One of my criticisms of literature on bullying is that it is taken to be antisocial behaviour. This is a misconceptualization because bullying affords dominance and social status and is often rewarded and supported by other children. It may not be nice, but it is, nevertheless, very social." (Walton p. 33)

3.2. Ethnic and Religious Diversity

3.2.1. Racism; A Hidden Currriculum (Ghosh)

3.2.1.1. "The hidden curriculum refers to the socialization process in schooling – a curriculum that is taught without being formally ascribed. It emanates from social, political and cultural environments of the society and must be understood in relation to the overall societal power structures (of ethnicity, class, and gender for example) that influence the education system. Therefore, the effects of the hidden curriculum are not casual or unsystematic but rather a reflection of the sociocultural and economic-political structure of society." (p. 28)

3.2.1.1.1. Racism is inherently based in the social institution and manifests as differences in power. Those who are on the privileged side of racism enjoy power and those on the oppressed side have little or none. (p. 26-27)

3.2.1.1.2. The power structures of society are mimicked in the school environment as a kind of microcosm. (p.27-28)

3.2.1.1.3. Includes various manifestations within the school community:

3.2.2. Balance between Accommodating Religious and Cultural diversity and facilitating Education

3.2.2.1. Reasons to accomodate

3.2.2.1.1. Making every student feel safe

3.2.2.1.2. Making sure students and parents feel that the school respects the student's identities and beliefs.

3.2.2.1.3. Foster understanding between students from different backgrounds.

3.2.2.1.4. Allows teachers to better understand their students so that they can root instruction in that student's reality.

3.2.2.2. Reasons to not accomodate

3.2.2.2.1. Religious or cultural beliefs interfere with education

3.2.2.2.2. Beliefs subject others to discrimination or bullying.

3.2.2.2.3. Beliefs of parents have subjected student to harm or psychological distress.

3.3. Ability and Disability

3.3.1. Ableism

3.3.1.1. A system that disparages or reduces the opportunity of people with perceived disability

3.3.1.1.1. Bullying

3.3.1.1.2. Language

3.3.1.1.3. Lack of Access

3.3.2. Adapting Instruction

3.3.2.1. Differentiating Instruction

3.3.2.1.1. Changing approaches to teaching based on an individual students needs

3.3.2.2. Universal Design for Learning

3.3.2.2.1. Designing a curriculum most likely to serve the majority of students, not just those with perceived ability. Elements designed for those with disabilities will also help those not initially targeted by the design.

3.4. Teacher Life/Work Balance and Teacher Burnout

3.4.1. Developments in technology add to a teachers workload while connecting them to administrators, parents, and students.

3.4.2. Reduced funds lead to larger class sizes which become more difficult to manage

3.4.3. Diversity makes the teaching experience more complicated, as one cannot simply teach to a "norm"

3.4.3.1. Personal Reflections: Of the things that concern me, this is one of the most pressing. I wonder if I am confident enough as a person to tackle this difficult profession. Teacher burnout seems like a frightening possibility.

3.4.4. Teachers base their goals on "hero" images of teaching from media.

3.4.5. Perceptions of teaching often do not meet the reality of teaching.

3.4.5.1. Teachers get into the profession because they think it is easy, and find out that is not true.

3.4.5.2. Parents, students, and governing bodies have specific ideas about teaching that are not based in reality, and therefore cause friction.

4. Being Agents of Change

4.1. Simply put, the teacher can facilitate change in their own way, starting in the classroom with individuals but also, eventually on a larger scale. This can be done by influencing policy or choosing to teach using methods and theories that foster learning rather than sticking to a model designed for another time.

4.1.1. Personal Reflections: I hope that I can be an agent of change. There are ways that I would already like to contribute:

4.1.1.1. Developing formative assessments rather than evaluative ones.

4.1.1.2. Using a progressive form of teaching that fosters a desire to learn in students and focuses on their interests.

4.1.1.3. Helping to reduce the disparity among individuals in my classes by raising awareness of those who are marginalized by race, sexuality, gender identity, and ability.

4.1.1.4. Contributing to the public discussion to help people understand the needs of teachers and students alike.