Standard: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective tech...

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Standard: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences Subject: English Language Arts Grade: 4 By: Ellene Hartounian by Mind Map: Standard: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences Subject: English Language Arts Grade: 4 By: Ellene Hartounian

1. Big Ideas

1.1. Sensory Details

1.2. Similes

1.3. Metaphors

1.4. Dialogue

1.5. Punctuation

1.6. Introduction

1.7. Conclusion

1.8. Transitional Words/Phrases

1.9. Topic Sentence

1.10. Characters

1.11. Setting

1.12. Sequence of Events

2. Objectives

2.1. 1. Create a compelling introduction that introduces the topic

2.1.1. Pre-Teach Vocabulary/Tap Into Prior Knowledge: I will teach vocabulary such as “topic sentence,” “introduction,” “character,” and “setting.” I will use a short story that we have already read in class previously, and point out where all these things are. I think that using a story that the students are already familiar with will be helpful since they can apply prior knowledge of a story to understanding the elements of an introduction.

2.1.2. I do/We do/You Do: After I point out the different elements of an introduction and identify them in a familiar story, I will do a similar activity with the class as the “we do” portion. I'll provide an introduction to a different short story on the overhead projector. We will read aloud as a class. Then, I'll ask for volunteers to come up to the board and underline the topic sentence, setting, and characters (different colors for each). After we do that, I will split the students into small groups ("You do") and give them each an introduction paragraph for a text that we HAVE NOT read yet. Each group will get a different text. The groups must identify the character, topic sentence, and setting. After ten minutes, we will discuss together as a class.

2.1.3. Charms Activity: I found this video on youtube and I absolutely love the idea, but I do want to alter it a bit to better fit my objectives. I think this will really help students introduce a topic. When the students pick a particular charm and begin telling their story, I would like them to mention 3 things about the short story they tell the class: Where they were when the event occurred, who was there, how they felt, and what happened.

2.2. 2. Effectively use descriptive language and sensory details to paint a vivid image for the reader

2.2.1. Pre-Teach Vocabulary (Sensory details, similes, metaphors): In my previous lesson plan, I incorporated Katy Perry's hit song, “Firework.” This a popular song that the students love, and using it to teach about figurative language will engage students as it appeals to their interests and is relevant to their lives. I think using pop culture is always helpful to teach material! In this specific song, there are many examples of similes and metaphors. I will use this to help me teach the differences between the two and how to identify them. Pre-teaching vocabulary in this way gives students the foundation they need to complete a more challenging text using the concepts of figurative language. (Alber 2011).

2.2.2. Visuals and Realia: In order to get familiar with talking about sensory information, I will split the class into small groups and give each group an object (such as a scented candle, a bumpy rock, a piece of clay, etc.). In addition to receiving an object, each group will also receive a flashcard with one of the five senses written on it. The group will have to come up with several sentences to describe the object they were given through the sense they were assigned. After some time, the groups will each present their object and their sentences. Using visuals and realia is beneficial in expanding the students' vocabulary and keeping them engaged (Houser 2015).

2.3. 3. Ensure the coherence and flow of the events in the narrative through correct use of transitional words and phrases

2.3.1. Pre Teach Vocabulary: Before we go into reading a text and identifying transitional words and phrases, I will introduce and define transitional words. I will also give some examples on the board.

2.3.2. Read Aloud: Reading aloud is particularly helpful for ELL students since it improves fluency, keeps students engaged, and introduces a text (Houser 2015). After giving the students examples of transitional words, I will present a text on the overhead projector and give each student a copy as well. We will do “popcorn reading” so the students can take turns reading aloud. After each student reads a sentence, we will stop and check if there are any transitional words. If there are, I will circle them with a colored marker. When we finish reading, we will have a class discussion about what we noticed about the use of transitional words and phrases in the text. How many different words/phrases were used? How were they used? Where in the story were the used?

2.3.3. Graphic Organizers: I will use color coded graphic organizers to explain how and when we use particular transitional words and phrases. Graphic organizers help students organize and understand new information (Alber 2011).

2.3.4. Real-Life Products: By bringing real life applications into the classroom, students can understand the relevance of concepts learned in class, and thus be more motivated and engaged (Robinson 2004). To use a real-life application for learning transitional words, I will have students create a recipe for their favorite food. They will create a small poster board presentation that will include a picture of the food, and listed instructions on how to make it. The instructions will need to use the transitional words we learned in class, which also turns this project into a gradual release of responsibility assignment (First I teach them how to use the transitional words, then we work together as a class by doing the reading aloud assignment, and eventually the students must take this knowledge and work individually to create a product). Giving the students a choice to pick their own food will appeal to their interests as well. Students will understand that transitional words can be used in many different scenarios, such as writing instructions on how to prepare a particular dish.

2.4. 4. Incorporate dialogue into the narrative using correct grammar and punctuation

2.4.1. Tap into prior Knowledge: Students have read many texts in class at this point. The stories all include dialogue. Talk to the students and ask what they notice about dialogue in stories. What kinds of punctuation marks are used? Are there certain patterns? This is a good way to introduce the lesson on how to effectively use dialogue in our narratives.

2.4.2. Gradual Release of Responsibility: First, I will project a short passage complete with colored illustrations onto the whiteboard. The passage will have dialogue, but there will be no punctuation indicating where the dialogue is. I will read aloud, and point out the area in which dialogue is used, explaining how to use context clues to figure out where the dialogue is. Next, I will insert the proper punctuation marks. I will do this for the first few instances of dialogue, and then ask the class for volunteers for the next ones. The volunteers will come up to the board and insert the correct punctuation marks in the correct places. Then, the students will be split into small groups and each group will be given: a large poster board, a small excerpt of writing (different for each group), and different colored markers. The excerpt will have no punctuation indicating dialogue. The students will have to copy the short excerpt onto their poster board using a black marker, then use different colored markers to insert quotation marks and commas in the correct places. In addition, the students will also draw a picture of what is happening in the excerpt. They can choose to convey dialogue by drawing the characters with speech bubbles.When they are finished, each group will present their poster. Finally, as a summative assessment, I'll assign a homework assignment in which each student is given a paper with 10 sentences of dialogue. The students must individually insert the correct punctuation marks and bring the assignment back to school the next day.

2.4.3. Modeling/Gestures: In order to teach the idea of using exact verbs when writing dialogue (steering clear of the word "said" and instead using verbs such as "exclaimed," "complained," etc.), I will divide the students into pairs and give each pair a short dialogue. The short dialogue will only use the word "said." The students' job is to replace each "said" with a more exact verb. When the pairs are finished, each pair will have to act out the dialogue based on which verbs they used. For example, if a pair changed the verb introducing a particular dialogue to "whispered," then they will actually have to whisper the dialogue.

2.5. 5. Form a conclusion that wraps up the story and flows with narrated experiences/events

2.5.1. Use of First Language: Although it isn't a good idea to translate everything, using a student's first language can be beneficial as a scaffold because it can assist the student in making connections between ideas. You can also use the student's first language to translate instructions if necessary (Houser 2015). This technique is a good way to differentiate my instruction to the students' readiness levels as my students vary in their English proficiency. Since all my students are native Korean speakers, I often find it helpful to provide specific Korean translations. For example, when giving instructions about what a successful conclusion should look like, it might be helpful to give these instructions in Korean so the students can better understand the goal of a conclusion. When I explain that a conclusion must “wrap up a text” and “flow with narrated events,” I know that I have some lower level students that would benefit from hearing that in Korean.

2.5.2. Read Aloud/See Examples: I will present several very short stories that we will read as a class through popcorn reading. Before we read the stories, I will outline a couple things that a conclusion for a narrative writing needs. I'll explain to the students that at the end of their narrative, they should reiterate how they feel about the topic. For example, as the final narrative writing assignment, the students will be a given the following prompt: What was your favorite childhood memory? So, I want the students to understand that at the end of their narrative, they should explain their final thoughts and feelings about the event they wrote about. When reading the example narratives, I will highlight various key words and sentences that portray what a narrative should look like.

2.5.3. Intentional Small Group Work: After we read the example narratives together, I'll split the class into groups. Each group will get the same narrative, but the narrative will be missing a conclusion. Each group will come up with their own conclusion for the narrative. At the end of the class, the groups will share their narratives. This will be interesting as the students are coming up with different conclusions for the same piece of writing.

3. References

3.1. Alber, R. (2011). 6 Scaffolding Strategies to Use With Your Students. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/scaffolding-lessons-six-strategies-rebecca-alber Houser, K. (2015) 8 Strategies for Scaffolding Instruction. Retrieved from: http://www.mshouser.com/teaching-tips/8-strategies-for-scaffolding-instruction Robinson, L. (2004). Tiering to Avoid Tears: Developing Assignments That Address All Learner's Needs. Retrieved from: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/every-learner/6680

4. Key Factors About Students

4.1. Visual learners: I have noticed that many of my current students are visual learners. For this reason, I included many activities in the unit that incorporate graphic organizers, color coding, illustrations, and other visual cues.

4.2. ELL: My current students are all English language learners at varying levels. In order to combat the issue of the students in my class being at very different levels of English proficiency, I have incorporated a lot of group work and pair work. Additionally, I provide translations of difficult vocabulary before the lesson.

4.3. Students with ADHD: Students with ADHD often have difficulty staying still in their seats. To differentiate my scaffolding for these students, I made sure to have a variety of different activities, many of them involving getting up and moving around. For example, students will be moving around and talking to one another in order to create a poster, standing up and acting out dialogue, touching and feeling real objects when learning how to use sensory information,etc. Students with ADHD also benefit from color coding, which is why I incorporated color coding in the transitional words graphic organizer.