Dehli and Agra

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Dehli and Agra by Mind Map: Dehli and Agra

1. Empires

1.1. Many empires/ civilisations have settled in Dehli.

1.2. The Great Mughals

1.2.1. This dynasty is probably the most famous.there were 5 great kings which were: Babur - the founder of this dynasty, Akbar - a very kind leader who did tolerated all religions, Jahangir - the son of Akbar and the father of Shah Jahan, Shah Jahan - builder of the Taj Mahal and the one who almost drained all the money they had and lastly comes Aurangzeb who was the last of the great rulers his people did not like him very much, he did not like or tolerate many religions.

1.2.2. Humayun was Babur's son but could not make it on the great list. Humayun died and un natural death by falling down the stairs and breaking his neck and dying. Humayun's tomb was made by Akbar and his mother.

1.2.3. This dynasty started in 1526 and ended in 1857

1.2.4. The Mughal empire marked an end for the Dehli sultanate

1.3. Tughlaqs

1.3.1. The Tughlaq dynasty started with Giyyasuddin Tughlaq 1320. This dynasty ended in 1413.

1.3.2. Some great Tughlaq kings were Giyyasuddin Tughlaq, Mohammad Bin Tughlaq and Feroze Shah Tughlaq.

1.4. Mamluks

1.4.1. The Mamluks or the slave dynasty was started by Qutabuddin Aibak, who was a general in Mohammad Ghori's army. Qutabuddin Aibak started the work for the Qutub Minar. Although his son Illtugmish completed, but after lightning struck the Qutub Minar Feroze Shah Tughlaq restored it and added one storey.

1.4.2. This dynasty started in 1206 and ended in 1290

1.4.3. Illtugmish's daughter Razia was crowned as sultan after Illtugmish because he thought that his sons were incapable of running a kingdom. Razia sultan was sadly killed in war by her own brother. Her reign was for only 3 years.

1.5. Kilji

1.5.1. The killjoy's were of turkish descent, but they came to India from Afghanistan. They were slaves of the Mamluks.

1.5.2. Jalaluddin Kilji was a commander in the last Mamluk sultans army, but the sultan had a stroke so Jalaluddin took the throne after killing the Mamluk king's three year old son.

1.5.3. After Jalaluddin came Alauddin Kilji, who was the nephew of Jalaluddin. After killing his uncle Alauddin became the new sultan.

2. Why Dehli

2.1. Dehli as a capital was naturally protected.

2.2. It was quite accessible

2.3. Dehli had many riches

2.4. it has been a capital for most empires / dynasties

2.5. There was an availability of resources and water.

2.6. It had fort area

3. Cities of Dehli

3.1. 1.Mehraul - This city was made by the Mamluks

3.2. 2.Siri - This city was made by Alauddin Kilji in the Kilji dynasty

3.3. 3.Tughlakabad - This city was made by Giyyasuddin Tughlaq from the Tughlaq dynasty

3.4. 4.Janahpanah - This city was made by Mohammad Bin Tughlaq from the Tughlaq dynasty

3.5. 5.Firozabad - This city was made by Firoze Shah Tughlaq from the Tughlaq dynasty

3.6. 6.Dinpanah - This city was made by Humayun rom the Mughal empire

3.7. 7.Shahjahanabad - This city was made by Shah Jahan from the Mughal empire

3.8. 8.New Dehli - This city was made by Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker from the British side.

4. Monuments of Dehli and Agra

4.1. Qutub Complex

4.1.1. In this complex there is the Qutub minar, the Alai darwaza, the iron pillar and the Alai minar.

4.1.2. Qutub minar

4.1.2.1. the Qutub minar means the tower of victroy. It was first built by Qutubuddin Aibk but he could only finish one storey so his son built three more storeys. One day a lighting bolt struck it and this was when Feroze shah Tughlaq was sultan so he restored it and added one more storey.

4.1.2.2. It is made with Red sand stone and it has marble on top which was added by Feroze Shah Tughlaq.

4.1.2.3. Making minarets was a very unique design fromAfghanistan and Central Asia. They were used in memory of something big that happened in this case Mohammmad Ghori had won a battle.

4.1.2.4. The Qutub minar 374 floors

4.1.3. Alai minar

4.1.3.1. The Alai minar was started by Alauddin Kilji when he wanted to make a minaret that was bigger than the Qutub minar. He wanted to make a minar that was twice the height and width of the Qutub minar.

4.1.3.2. Alauddin could not finish the Alai minar because it was very Ambitious and he kept fighting wars and getting preoccupied. His workers and the king after him didn't want to finish it as they knew it would waste resources and be be too big and too ambitious.

4.1.4. Iron pillar

4.1.4.1. The iron pillar was from the Gupta period. It was brought to Dehli and placed in the Qutub complex.

4.1.4.2. It is right in the centre of the Archs. 10 of the Iron pillar would be the height of the Qutub minar

4.1.5. Alai Darwaza

4.1.5.1. Alauddin Kilji also made this doorway. Darwaza means door. The Alai draws ha many intricate designs on it. It has a dome and has many geometric shapes in it.

4.1.5.2. It is made of red sand stone.

4.2. Feroze Shah Kotla

4.2.1. Feroze shah kotla is a fort that was built by Feroze shah Tughlaq. Feroze shah Tughlaq was interested in the Ashoka pillar therefore he brought it to his fort in Dehli. Feroze Tughlaq also built a city called Ferozeabad

4.2.2. The Ashoka pillar

4.2.2.1. It was like the constitution of back then. It had all the rights and responsibilities that king Ashoka gave to his people.

4.2.2.1.1. Timur tried to take the Ashoka pillar away but only managed to break away the top part of it.

4.2.2.2. The language that is written on the Ahoka pillar was an early form of sanskrit.

4.3. Tughlakabad Fort

4.3.1. This fort was built by Giyyasudin Tughlaq, he was very smart as he assigned his generals to take charge of a part of the fort ( while it was in the building process stage ) he made a competition and the reward was that that general would be Giyyasudin's favourite.

4.3.2. The fort was completed in 2 years

4.3.3. The fort has slanting walls, as defence. It made it harder for invaders to climb up the fort walls, and the walls were also double-layered, so it was harder for invaders to break through. These defence strategies made the fort secure.

4.4. Humayun's Tomb

4.4.1. This tomb was for Humayun. It was designed by Akbar ( Humayun's son ) and Akbar's mother ( Humayun's wife. )

4.4.2. The Gardens were created using a char bhag system. This system means to divide the garden into 4 and then divide it into more if needed. Even the Taj Mahal uses this system.

4.4.3. The Gardens are all symmetrical.

4.4.4. It has 6 domes. The mughals could tilt land ever so slightly that water could flow and it could look straight. 4 or more rivers running through means paradise in the islamic religion.

4.5. Agra Fort

4.5.1. The Agra fort was a citadel. It was made by Akbar between 1565 and 1573. It was built by the Mughal empire.

4.5.2. The king and army would be welcomed in a big way near the Akbari gate in the fort.

4.5.3. Defence and attacking systems

4.5.3.1. The ground has grips for the horses

4.5.3.2. There were arrow slits and bastions .

4.5.3.3. There were places to let out water and grass so that the horses of the opposing army would get injured and scared.

4.5.4. Jahangiri Mahal

4.5.4.1. It was built by Akbar for Jahangir ( Akbar's son )

4.5.4.2. There was fresco and murals on the walls.

4.5.5. Shah Jahan used white marble in the fort. He had more resources than his grandfather and father as they helped stabilise the kingdom more than build monuments. Shah Jahan was in the golden age. Trade was in favour of India and India was called the golden bird.

4.6. Fatephur Sikri

4.6.1. Was built by Akbar. Fatephur Sikri means fort of victory. Sikri means village. it was built between 1570 and 1575.

4.6.2. Akbar had no son till 1569. He took blessings from a sufi saint named Sheck Salim Chisti. He got a boy who he named Salim and who was later known as Jahangir.

4.6.3. It had a natural cooling system which had water flowing through the fort so that it would stay cool.

4.6.4. The army consisted of foot soldiers, cavalry, elephants and camals. Cavalry played a very important role.

4.6.5. Fatephur Sikri was the capital for 15 years.

4.6.6. Kings used to shift often.

4.6.7. It had a harayam where only princes, princesses and the queens used to stay.

4.7. Jama Masjid

4.7.1. The Jama Masjid is a mosque which was built by king Shah Jahan.

4.7.2. It was made with the Karmuka design which is from the Vastu Shastra book.

4.7.3. The idea was that the mosque was to be place above the fort ( where the king lived ). The highest part of the fort would be the lowest point of the mosque. They wanted to show that God is higher than every one even the king.

4.8. Red Fort

4.8.1. Each year the pm adresses the country from the red fort.

4.8.2. Diwane-Khas and Diwane-Am

4.8.2.1. The Diwane-Khas is for special people or for the nobles and the kings and princes e.c.t

4.8.2.1.1. the Diwane- Khas used to have the peacock throne now no one can find it.

4.8.2.2. The Diwane-Am is for the normal citizens to address their issues to the king.

4.8.2.3. They are like the Rajya Subha and the Lok Subha

4.8.3. Kile e mubarak

4.8.3.1. This was the actual name of the fort

4.8.4. It took 9/10 years to build.

4.8.5. The British built Baracks

4.8.6. Now the military has taken half the fort.

4.8.7. Moti Masjid

4.8.7.1. made for Aurangzeb as did not want to come out to go to the mosque.

4.8.8. It was built by shah Jahan

4.8.9. It had a natural cooling system and a music system

4.9. Chandni Chowk

4.9.1. It was designed by Jahanara who was Shah Jahan's eldest and most favourite daughter.

4.9.2. It runs through the middle of Shahjahanabad.

4.9.3. It is a market place. It has streets that were meant for specific things.

4.10. Mutiny Memorial

4.10.1. This was built by the British to remember their soldiers as well as the Indain soldiers wh fought for them.

4.10.2. It can also be called Fategarh or Ajitgarh.

4.10.3. There was racial discrimination at that time

4.10.4. without Indians British would never have won

4.11. Taj Mahal

4.11.1. The most beautiful monument

4.11.2. It was built by Shah Jahan for his most favourite wife Mumtaj Mahal.

4.11.3. In the Taj there is Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan's body buried.

4.11.4. The Taj Mahal has many illusions and is built on the banks of the river Yamuna.

4.11.5. Behind the Taj there is a Mughal Garden as well as the river Yamuna.

4.12. Gandhi Smriti

4.12.1. This is where Gandhi ji died.

4.12.2. Gandhi ji thought about Rights and Responsibilities as well for e.g.. Women's rights and right to education.

4.12.3. Gandhi ji thought about unity and equality

4.13. Parliament Musuem

4.13.1. Ashoka is the cultivator of a democracy.

4.13.2. united and diversity

4.13.3. divide and rule

4.13.4. vandematram was an inspiration for India

4.13.5. Jallianwallabhag= shootings that were unprovoked ( unprovoked violence )

4.13.6. I.N.A

4.13.6.1. were people who fought for India

4.13.7. Central legislative assembly

4.13.8. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first pm

4.13.8.1. Trust with destiny

4.13.9. Dr. Ambedkar was in the drafting committee.

4.13.10. Rajya Subha has a red carpet where as Lok Subha has a green carpet.

4.13.11. Transfer of power

4.14. Rashtrapati Bhavan

4.14.1. This is where the president lives.

4.14.1.1. The current president is Pranab Mukharjee

4.14.2. It has a Marble Museum and Kitchen museum.

4.14.3. The Rashtrapati Bhavan has grand dining rooms and paintings.

4.14.4. If the flag is up that means that the president is home and if the flag is not there that means that the president is not there.

4.14.5. There are many exotic Gardens with many rare and beautiful flowers. There is a Mughal Garden., spiritual garden and many more.

4.14.6. It was constructed by Edward Luteyens and Herbert Baker

4.14.7. It has 340 rooms and is set on 320 acres.

4.14.8. The centre of the Rashtrapati Bhavan is aligned with the India gate.

5. Leila Seth's Talk

5.1. Good Citizen

5.1.1. During Leila Seth's talk we learned that good citizens should always do their best, follow the rules and be innovative

5.2. Words in the preamble

5.2.1. Secular

5.2.1.1. Secular means separation of religion from a state

5.2.2. Socialist

5.2.2.1. Socialist means people have no property of their own, the state has property. But Indians changed the meaning to better the lives of people

5.2.3. Fraternity

5.2.3.1. Fraternity means brother or sisterhood

5.2.4. Freedom

5.2.4.1. Freedom means respect others freedom not only your self

5.2.5. Integrity

5.2.5.1. Integrity means honesty and telling the truth. It was a new word added to the preamble

5.2.6. Justice

5.2.6.1. Justice means being fair.

5.2.6.2. There is social justice

5.2.6.3. Political justice

5.2.6.3.1. To vote

5.2.6.4. legal justice

5.2.6.5. Economic justice

5.2.6.5.1. opportunity to earn

5.2.7. Republic

5.2.7.1. Republic means something with and elected nominee or representative

5.2.8. Equality

5.2.8.1. Equality means status and to have and opportunity

5.2.8.2. Women in some countries are not treated equally that is why equality is a major part in the constitution.

5.3. Preamble

5.3.1. the preamble is the essence of the constitution

5.4. Leila Seth used to be a chief justice. The chief justice is higher than a normal judge.

5.5. The state of Emergency

5.5.1. Internal

5.5.1.1. Internal emergency is to be used for things that happen within the country for this to be done here are stricter policies and the laws have changed ever since Indra Gandhi declared a state of emergency.

5.5.2. External

5.5.2.1. This is for matters that are coming from another country for e.g. War

5.6. The constituent assembly approved the constitution it has to be approved by the constituent assembly.

5.7. November 26th used to be called law day but now has changed to constitution day.

5.8. The constitution is being applaid in our daily lives in one way or another so every single day we need the constitution.

6. Administration

6.1. The Administration of those times was a system called Mansabdari system

6.2. Akbar got this system from Iran

6.3. It means holder of the Rank

6.4. The officials, higher ranking people and nobles were called Umra/Urma

6.5. Earlier, this system was used on both the Army and civils

6.6. Now, this system is used for only the Army