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Sexual Reproduction by Mind Map: Sexual Reproduction
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Sexual Reproduction

Puberty

Male

Become muscular and shoulders broaden

Testis and penis increase in size

Height rapidly increases

Reproductive system becomes active

Ejaculation starts

Hair grows on face, chest, pubic areas

Female

Ovaries and vagina increase in size

Menstruation occurs

Hair grows on face, pubic areas

Hips widen and become rounder

Height rapidly increases

Reproductive system becomes active

Breast develop

Reproductive organs

Male

Testis, Produces Sperms

Scrotum, Keep the testis and the penis out of the body

Epididymis, Where sperms produced by the testis are stored

Urethra, Tube which carriers both sperm and urine out of the body

Sex Glands, Releases fluid that nourishes and protects the sperms, and forms semen

Sperm Duct, Tube that carriers sperms from the epididymis to the urethra

Female

Fallopian tube, Carries ovum to uterus, and has cilia to sweep ovum to the urerus

Vagina, Site where sperms are deposited during sexual intercourse

Ovary, Produces sex hormones and ova

Cervix, Neck of the uterus which widens during child birth

Uterus, Structure whereby the fertilised ovum is implanted in, and also where ovum is developed into zygote and foetus during pregnancy

Menstrual Cycle

Menstruation

Day 1-5 of the cycle

Uterine lining, unfertilised egg and blood are shed with the help of muscular contractions of the uteris

Contractions cause cramps

Thickening of uterine lining

To prepare for implantation, the lining thickens and becomes spongy, and full of capillaries

Ovulation

Day 14-16 of the cycle

A mature ovum is released from an ovary

Considered the most fertile period

When it stops

Temporary, When a person is pregnant, menstruation stops but thick uterine wall is maintained to cushion the developing fertilised ovum

Permanent, Stops at menopause onwards, which happens after 50 years old+

Fertilisation

Sperm meets an ovum and fuses together through the insertion of the penis into the female's vagina

Semen is ejaculated, following by the sperms swimming up the Fallopian tube

Sperm meets the ovum in the Fallopian tube and fertilisation occurs

One sperm penetrates through the cell membrane

Nuclei of sperm and ovum fuse together

Fertilised egg is called the zygote

Passes along the Fallopian tube to the uterus

Zygote divides repeatedly to form embryo

Embryo gets implanted in the thick uterine lining, undergoes differentiation to form a foetus

Foetus gets nourishment from the mother through the placenta

Heredity

The transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to offspring

Sperm which contains father's DNA

Ovum which contains mother's DNA

Zygote contains mixture of father and mother's DNA

Birth control

Preventing fertilisation

Condom, Worn over the erected penis, Barriers the eggs and sperms

Diaphragm, Placed over the cervix, Barriers the spemrs and eggs

Spermicide, Kills sperms

Preventing ovulation

Contraceptive pills, Contains synthetic female sex hormones, Suppresses the development and release of the eggs

Preventing the development of a fertilised egg

Intra-uterine device, Inserted into the uterus, which prevents implantation of the fertilised egg in the uterus

Sterilisation

Ligation (Females), Tie and cut Fallopian tubes

Vasectomy (Males), Tie and cut the sperm duct

A person's ability to reproduce is permanently removed, and this process is irreversible

Abortion

Causes physical, emotional, and social issues if pregnancy is unwanted

The deliberate termination of a pregnancy

Use surgical procedure to remove the developing embryo or foetus from the mother's uterus

Complications may rise

Infections of the uterus or Fallopian tube can cause infertility

Heavy bleeding due to accidental puncturing of the uterus

Weakening and damage of the cervix and uterus

Emotional problems

Sexually transmitted infections

Caused by viruses and micro-organisms

Transmitted by:

Skin to skin contact

Contact with bodily fluids

From infected mother to foetus

From infected mother to baby during childbirth

Different infections

Gonorhea, Caused by sperical bateria, Transmitted through, Sexual intercourse, Mother to baby through childbirth, Symptoms, Painful sensation during urination, Discharge of pus from the penis or vagina, Infection of urethra of Fallopian tubes causing infertility, Newborn may be blind, Can be treated with anti-biotics

Syphilis, Caused by spiral bacteria, Transmitted through, Sexual intercourse, Mother to foetus during pregnancy, Symptoms, Painless sores on penis,vagina,cervix,mouth, Non-itchy skin rash, Deformed joints, Paralysis, Foetus infected by mother may be deaf, or have abnormal teeth and bone, Can be treated with antibiotics at early stages

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Caused by Humans Immunodeficiency Virus, Transmitted through, Sexual intercourse, Sharing of injection needles with infected people, Blood transfusion, Infected mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth, Symptoms/effects, HIV attacks white blood cells, therefore the immune system of the person is reduced, Other infections and cancers will affect the person, Currently no cure