ENGLISH BASIC

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ENGLISH BASIC by Mind Map: ENGLISH BASIC

1. UNIDAD I "GETTING TO KNOW ENGLISH"

1.1. 1.1 The Alphabet and Spelling.

1.1.1. Why is important to learn the English alphabet? And its pronunciation?

1.1.1.1. It's a basic resourse to move through the world, Especially in English-speaking countries

1.1.1.2. It'll depend of the situations in which we are and which we have to spell in English, such as:

1.1.1.2.1. Our names

1.1.1.2.2. Each other ones in different places

1.2. 1.2 Numbers 1-20

1.2.1. At everywhere you are, it´s very important to know the numbers, so they are very useful to say phone´s numbers, passport´s number, date, time, addresses, etc… Due to that, I display the following ones, from 1 to 20.

1.2.1.1. 1. one

1.2.1.2. 2.two

1.2.1.3. 3.three

1.2.1.4. 4.four

1.2.1.5. 5.five

1.2.1.6. 6.six

1.2.1.7. 7.seven

1.2.1.8. 8.eight

1.2.1.9. 9.nine

1.2.1.10. 10.ten

1.2.1.11. 11.eleven

1.2.1.12. 12.twelve

1.2.1.13. 13.thirteen

1.2.1.14. 14.fourteen

1.2.1.15. 15.fifteen

1.2.1.16. 16.sixteen

1.2.1.17. 17.seventeen

1.2.1.18. 18.eighteen

1.2.1.19. 19.nineteen

1.2.1.20. 20.twenty

1.3. 1.3 Greetings / Goodbye.

1.3.1. In this course you are going to learn how to express greetings and goodbyes in English. Greetigngs and goodbyes have an important role in society.

1.3.2. They are acts of communication in which people intentionally make their presence or absence known to each other.

1.3.3. Therefore, a greeting is something frienly or polite that you say or do when you meet or welcome someone, and a goodbye ir something friendly or polite that you say to someone when you or they are leaving.

1.3.4. The English language distinguishes between formal and informal gretings and goodbyes

1.3.5. The most usual way of greeting someone in the English language is to say 'Hello'. You can continue the conversation by adding 'How are you?' or another comment or question.

1.3.5.1. For example:

1.3.5.1.1. Hello, Karen. How are you today?

1.3.5.1.2. Hello, Marcos. Had a good day?

1.3.6. The greeting 'Hello' can be used in formal and informal situations.

1.3.6.1. A more informal way of greeting someone is to say 'Hi'. This exclamation is used in informal situations when people who know each other meet.

1.3.6.1.1. For example:

1.3.7. most common greetings and farewells

1.3.7.1. Greetings

1.3.7.1.1. Hello o Hi

1.3.7.1.2. Good Morning

1.3.7.1.3. Good Afternoon

1.3.7.1.4. Good Evening

1.3.7.1.5. How are you?

1.3.7.1.6. How have you been?

1.3.7.1.7. How is going up?

1.3.7.1.8. How's everything

1.3.7.1.9. How's it going

1.3.7.2. Farewells(goodbyes)

1.3.7.2.1. Good bye/bye

1.3.7.2.2. See you later

1.3.7.2.3. See you soon

1.3.7.2.4. Have a nice day

1.3.7.2.5. Have a great time

1.3.7.2.6. Good nigth

1.3.7.2.7. Take care

1.3.7.2.8. So long

1.3.7.2.9. See you then

1.4. 1.4 The Verb BE (am, is , are)

1.4.1. One of the most verbs used in English language is the verb “BE”, this verb has two meaning in Spanish (ser y estar), and it also has three ways to be applied: am, is, are. Its use is going to depend of the personal conjugation.

1.4.1.1. The verb to be

1.4.1.1.1. am

1.4.1.1.2. are

1.4.1.1.3. is

1.4.2. The verb “BE” is different from the other verbs in this tense.

1.4.2.1. positive form (positive means a normal sentence, not a negative or a question. This is sometimes called “affirmative”).

1.4.2.1.1. I am

1.4.2.1.2. you are

1.4.2.1.3. he is

1.4.2.1.4. she is

1.4.2.1.5. it is

1.4.2.1.6. we are

1.4.2.1.7. they are

1.4.2.2. The negative form is very easy. You only add “not” after the verb.

1.4.2.2.1. I'm not

1.4.2.2.2. you'are not

1.4.2.2.3. he's not

1.4.2.2.4. she's not

1.4.2.2.5. it's not

1.4.2.2.6. we're not

1.4.2.2.7. they're not

1.4.2.3. For interrogative one, put the verb “be” at the beginning, then the subject and finally a question mark at the end

1.4.2.3.1. Am I...?

1.4.2.3.2. Are you...?

1.4.2.3.3. Is he ...?

1.4.2.3.4. Is she...?

1.4.2.3.5. Is it...?

1.4.2.3.6. Are we...?

1.4.2.3.7. Are they...?

1.4.3. For example:

1.4.3.1. BE, (ser) I’m mexican.

1.4.3.1.1. She’s a nurse.

1.4.3.1.2. You're not a teacher.

1.4.3.1.3. Are they students?

1.4.3.2. BE, (estar) I'm in mexico.

1.4.3.2.1. She is in the hospital.

1.4.3.2.2. You're not in the school..

1.4.3.2.3. Are they in house?

2. UNIDAD III "GOING AHEAD"

2.1. 3.1 Descriptions

2.1.1. What is an adjective? An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words.

2.1.1.1. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence.

2.1.1.1.1. example.

2.1.1.2. Adjectives are said to modify nouns and are necessary to make the meanings of sentences clearer or more exact.

2.1.1.3. example

2.1.1.3.1. The big truck is working well

2.1.1.3.2. Salvador is a friendly person

2.1.1.3.3. My car is red and black

2.1.1.3.4. Elena has short hair.

2.2. 3.2 Nationalities.

2.2.1. The word “Nationality” is not often used in spoken English. This is a formal and official word and it appears more frequently in written English. You will find the word “Nationality” is used a lot in the travel industry and for immigration.

2.2.1.1. When we talk about nationalities, we must be careful because is easy to get some mistakes, why or how? well, look the following ones

2.2.1.1.1. We almost never say:

2.2.1.1.2. We usually say:

2.2.1.1.3. To tell someone your nationality

2.2.1.1.4. You must say:

2.2.1.2. use of verb “BE” in these ones.

2.2.1.2.1. I am from El Salvador.

2.2.1.2.2. I am Salvadoran.

2.2.1.2.3. I speak Spanish.

2.2.1.3. More examples:

2.2.1.3.1. She comes from Guatemala.

2.2.1.3.2. Her nationality is Guatemalan.

2.2.1.3.3. She speaks Spanish.

2.2.1.4. And also, these kinds of nouns or nationalities has singular and plural forms.

2.2.1.4.1. Singular

2.2.1.4.2. Plural

2.2.1.5. examples

2.2.1.5.1. Country

2.2.1.5.2. Nationality

2.2.1.5.3. Language

2.3. 3.3 Negatives Statements Questions with Be.

2.3.1. example

2.3.1.1. subject

2.3.1.1.1. I

2.3.1.2. verb "BE"

2.3.1.2.1. am

2.3.1.3. word"not"

2.3.1.3.1. not

2.3.1.4. complement

2.3.1.4.1. a sudent

2.3.2. In the other hand, we have the questions, but what is a question?

2.3.2.1. A question (interrogative sentence) asks about some missing information the speaker would like to have. For questions usually use a rising intonation towards the end of the sentences. We can form Yes/No questions with the verb “BE”. A Yes/No question is a closed question, meaning that it has one of two answers, yes or no. It asks whether something is true or not, whether the original positive sentence is valid. A question element needs to precede the subject in order to form this question.

2.3.2.2. In the case of verb “BE”, this element is the same verb “be” and it´s necessary transfer or change the order of the position before the subject and we add a question mark (?) at the end of the sentence.

2.3.2.3. example

2.3.2.3.1. Is he the new teacher? Yes, he is. / No, he is not.

2.3.2.3.2. Is she your mother? Yes, she is. / No, she is not.

2.3.2.3.3. Is it your pet? Yes, it is? / No, it is not.

2.3.2.3.4. Are they your parents? Yes, they are. / No, they are not.

2.4. 3.4 Possessives

2.4.1. it´s very important to know that we have possessive pronoun and possessive adjectives, please, be careful and don’t confuse them, the possessive pronouns are another topic, but now, we are going to learn the possessive adjectives.

2.4.1.1. In English the possessive adjectives are

2.4.1.1.1. my

2.4.1.1.2. your

2.4.1.1.3. his

2.4.1.1.4. her

2.4.1.1.5. its

2.4.1.1.6. our

2.4.1.1.7. their

2.4.2. subject pronouns

2.4.2.1. I

2.4.2.2. you

2.4.2.3. he

2.4.2.4. she

2.4.2.5. It

2.4.2.6. we

2.4.2.7. they

2.4.3. possessive asjectives

2.4.3.1. my

2.4.3.2. your

2.4.3.3. his

2.4.3.4. her

2.4.3.5. its

2.4.3.6. our

2.4.3.7. their

2.4.4. example

2.4.4.1. this is my picture

2.4.4.2. sam is enjoing his ice drop

2.4.4.3. these are your shoes

2.4.5. They show to whom things belong or, in other words, possession. They are adjectives which modify a noun (or nouns). Remember, we use possessive adjectives to show who owns or "possesses" something. In Spanish, all adjectives must agree in number and usually gender. So the possessive adjectives also must agree with the items being owned. The possessive adjectives match only the items being possessed (owned.) They do not reflect how many owners there are or the gender of the owner.

2.4.6. Also, you must be careful with the possessive adjective and the contracted form of the verb “be” and “has” in personal pronouns. Look the difference:

2.4.6.1. your = possessive adjective

2.4.6.2. you're = you are (verb be)

2.4.6.3. its = possessive adjective

2.4.6.4. it's = it is OR it has

2.4.6.5. their = possessive adjective

2.4.6.6. they're = they are

3. UNIDAD V "DO YOU HAVE A BIG FAMILY"

3.1. 5.1 Family members

3.1.1. Sharing with the family is one of the most important activities in life, in this topic I'm going to talk about family members, how it's structured and how it´s used. Depending on your age, you may be asked about your parents and what they do for a living, or you may be asked if you are married or have any children. We are going to share about the basic and extended family. Keep in mind that masculine plurals in Spanish can refer to mixed groups of males and females.

3.1.1.1. Example:

3.1.1.1.1. “cuatro hijos” can mean either "four sons" (only male) or "four children," (mixed, female and male) depending on the context. Another collective word to describe brothers and sisters is siblings. However this word is normally only used in written English, not orally.

3.1.2. And while it may sound strange to the ear attuned to English, “padres” is a grammatically correct way to refer to both parents (papá y mamá). Also note that the word “pariente” means "relative" in general; it doesn't refer to parents.

3.1.3. In the next sentences you can see the relationship beetwen you and your family

3.1.3.1. When you have children, you are a

3.1.3.1.1. parent.

3.1.3.2. If you are a male parent, you are a

3.1.3.2.1. father.

3.1.3.3. If you are female parent, you are a

3.1.3.3.1. mother.

3.1.3.4. If one of your children is a boy, he is your

3.1.3.4.1. son.

3.1.3.5. If one of your children is a girl, she is your

3.1.3.5.1. daughter.

3.1.3.6. When a couple gets married, the man is the husband, and the woman is his

3.1.3.6.1. wife.

3.2. 5.2 Furniture & Appliances

3.2.1. Home sweet home, do you remember this expression? What do you think when you read that? Well in this topic, I'm going to talk about furniture and appliances. You can find some of these things in your house.

3.2.1.1. for example

3.2.1.1.1. a table

3.2.1.1.2. a sofa

3.2.1.1.3. a fan

3.2.1.1.4. a tv

3.2.1.1.5. a refrigerator

3.2.1.1.6. and so on

3.2.2. It´s very important to know what kind of brand of furniture and appliance you are going to buy for using in your house. Actually, when we are shopping.

3.2.2.1. for example

3.2.2.1.1. a TV, we have to decide if buying a Panasonic, Sony, LG, Samsung, and so on. So, due to that I show you the following brands.

3.2.3. Look this short conversation.

3.2.3.1. Hey Will, what´s your favorite brand of car?

3.2.3.2. Hi Jacob, my favorite brand of car is Honda. And what´s your favorite brand of cellphone?

3.2.3.3. Mmmm it´s Samsung

3.2.3.4. Samsung!!! wow I love Samsung, too.

3.3. 5.3 Jobs.

3.3.1. today we are going to talk about jobs, what is in your mind when you hear the word job? Do you think in just an occupation or in a profession? Which jobs keep in mind now? Well, let me tell you something, when we talk about jobs we are including the both “occupation” and “profession”.

3.3.2. But, what is an occupation and what is a profession? What is the difference? An occupation is an activity you do for earning your life, you can do many things without any other requirement, and just you can do it. But a profession is a vocation requiring knowledge of some department of learning or science, academic study is required.

3.3.3. Look the following list of occupation and profession with their own meaning or what each person does.

3.3.3.1. Actor/Actress

3.3.3.1.1. a person that acts in a play or a movie

3.3.3.2. Architect

3.3.3.2.1. a person that desings building and houses.

3.3.3.3. Baker

3.3.3.3.1. They make bread and cakes and normally work in a bakery

3.3.3.4. farmer

3.3.3.4.1. a person that works on a farm, usually whith animals

3.3.3.5. lawyer

3.3.3.5.1. a person that defends people in court and gives legal advice.