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1. Cosmopolitanism

1.1. Kwame Anthony Appiah, "Education for Global Citizenship"

2. Human Nature

2.1. Mencius, Mencius Book 2 and 6

2.2. Xunzi, "Man's Nature is Evil"

2.3. Plato, The Republic

3. Foundations of Moral Reasoning: Passions, Empathy, Reason

3.1. David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature

3.2. Adam Smith The Theory of Moral Sentiments

3.3. Fung Yu-Lan, A New Treatise on Human Nature

4. Moral Rationalism

4.1. Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

4.2. Jeremy Bentham, Principles of Morals and Legislation

5. Moral Relativism and Moral Realism

5.1. James Rachels, "The Challenge of Cultural Relativism"

5.2. Jonathan Haidt and Craig Joseph, "Intuitive Ethics: How Innately Prepared Intuitions Generate Culturally Variable Virtues"

5.3. Steven Pinker, "Taming the Devil Within Us"

6. Individual and Group Identity

6.1. Emile Durkheim, "The Dualism of Human Nature"

6.1.1. Dualism, Antinomy Body and Soul Sensation and Thought Self-Interest and Disinterest Sensation and Concept Subjective and Collective Personal and Impersonal Egoism and Altruism

6.1.2. Doctrine Empiricist Doctrine It's all sensation; even altruism is self-interested effot to feel good Idealist Doctrine It's all ideas; nothing is real until we think about it Metaphysical Doctrine Rationalist Doctrine

6.2. Charles Taylor, "The Politics of Recognition"

6.2.1. From Honor to Dignity Hierarchical (honor) Egalitarian (dignity) A politics of universal dignity

6.2.2. Moral Intuition "We have an internal understanding of the (objectively) right way to act" "The personal right way to act requires us to understand our internal feelings (authenticity)"

6.2.3. Authenticity Being true to myself Originality Individual Cultures A politics of difference

6.2.4. The Tension The politics of difference "springs from" the politics of equal dignity But the politics of difference "diverges from" the politics of equal dignity Respect for the potentiality of all people to act based on reason Respect for all actually evolved cultures, even if you think they are "unreasonable" Are there truly universal principles?

7. Patriotism

7.1. Plato, Crito

7.1.1. Not on an equal level with parents because parents provided benefits (nourishment and education)

7.1.2. Not on an equal level with government because government created the conditions under which parents provided those benefits

7.1.3. If you are free to leave but choose to stay, then you have a duty to obey

7.1.4. If you have an opportunity to present your arguments, then you have a duty to obey

7.1.5. If you choose to have a child in the city, then you must think it is "congenial enough" and you have a duty to obey

7.2. Carol Nicholson, "Why I Am Not a Patriot"

7.2.1. Patriotic Obligation vs. Emotional Patriotism

7.2.2. Richard Rorty: A "Golden Mean" of Patriotism

7.2.3. "Fixing love on an abstraction such as 'country' leads to the erroneous conclusion that one's country is better than all others, which is a recipe for intolerance, hate, and war."

7.3. Martha Nussbaum, "Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism"

7.3.1. Patriotism and Cosmopolitansim Rabindranath Tangore, The Home and the World Extreme Bande Mataram ("Hail Motherland") To worship one's own country as a god is to bring a curse upon it

7.3.2. Cosmopolitan Education We lean more about ourselves It becomes easier to solve problems cooperatively We recognize moral obligations to others We think in more principled ways (truly equal respect)

7.3.3. The Patriotic Challenge Patriotism 1 Love, Non-relative, Pride, Mutual Recognition Patriotism 2 Worship, Relative, Superiority, Disrespect

8. National Culture

8.1. Fareed Zakaria, "Culture is Destiny: An Interview with Lee Kuan Yew"

8.1.1. Lee's View of America Free and open relations across groups Open spirit of argument Idealistic, generous to defeated enemies High emphasis on government accountability Optimism, with history of consistent growth in orderly government Guns/drugs/violent crime/ vagrancy/poor behavior in public Extreme emphasis on individual rights Erosion of moral underpinnings Diminution of personal responsibility Disorder Guns/drugs/violent crime/ vagrancy/poor behavior in public

8.1.2. Lee's View of East Asia Individual always seen in context of family Xiushen qijia Zhiguo Pintianxia History of government turbulence, with dynasties that rise and fall Thrift and hard work Deferral of present enjoyment for future gain Filial piety and loyalty Respect for scholarship and learning

8.1.3. Domains of Possible Difference Role of the Family Developing Values Providing Material Benefits Role of the Government Maintaining Public Order Providing Material Benefits The Moral Balance Between Freedom and Responsibility

8.1.4. The Government We Seek Meet our needs Is not oppressive Maximizes our opportunities Does not try to provide what the family best provides A Well ordered society so that everybody can have maximum enjoyment of his freedoms

8.1.5. Multiculturalism Make haste slowly Integration, not assimilation A middle path between uniformity and freedom to be different Permit distinctive student dress, but not distinctive government official dress

8.2. Kim Dae Jung, "Is Culture Destiny? The Myth of Asia's Anti-Democratic Values"

8.2.1. Democracy Fits Well in Asia Mengzi advocated democratic accountabliliy Will of the people Confucianism, Buddhism, Tonghak Rule of law Meritocratic examinations Equal opportunity and social mobility Freedom of speech Rapid democratization since 1974

8.2.2. A Democratic Future Global democracy Greater voice in policies will make them more effective Xiushen qijia Zhiguo Pintianxia A government should guarantee the right of personal development

9. Gender Identity

9.1. Sherry B. Ortner, "Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?"

9.1.1. Structuralism People perceive the world through contrasts and "binary oppositions" (hot vs. cold, male vs. female, author vs. reader) The binary opposition is often a hierarchy, with a dominant element and a subordinate element All cultures develop ways to manage and reconcile these oppositions Universal, deep structures shape how cultures manage binary oppositions, although they will do so differently One reason why different cultures may take different approaches is that each culture has its own structure of linguistic "signs": relationships between sets of sounds("signifiers") and consepts ("signified") Deconstruction of "binary oppositions" to show interdependence and continuity Emphasis on history and context rather than universal structures

9.1.2. Women's inferiority Women universally treated as "closer to nature" than men "Culture": products of human consciousness (systems of thought and technology) through which humans attempt to control nature Woman identified with something that all cultures devalue:"nature" inferior to "culture" What universal structure explains this? Biological difference Culturally-created social roles difference Culturally-created gendered personality difference Culturally-created subordination

9.2. Elinor Burkett, "What Makes a Woman?"

9.2.1. Caitlyn Jenner's account of her gender identity "female brain" physical self-presentation

9.2.2. Burkett: Trans women's "female identities" are not my female identity; many women share experience that are not shared by trans women

10. Gender and Multiculturalism

10.1. Susan Moller Okin, "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?"

10.1.1. Favors liberal societies focused on the individual legal/public sphere Private sphere

10.1.2. More patriarchal Cultures Child marriage, forced marriage, polygame Restricted divorce Clitoridectomy

10.1.3. Less Patriarchal Cultures Push women towards prescribe roles

10.2. Usha Menon, "Does Feminism Have Universal Relevance? The Challenges Posed by Oriya Hindu Family Practices"

10.2.1. Oriya Hindu Exercise power within families Do not feel exploited Value lack of geographic mobility Powerful female symbols (goddess Devi)

10.3. Feminism

10.3.1. FIrst-Wave Feminism Securing fundamental legal and political rights rights to vote Eliminating "Coverture"

10.3.2. Second-Wave Feminism Pursuing social and cultural equality Ending workplace discrimination Equalizing roles within the family Challenging the "public"/"private" distinction The personal is political Advocating legal change Sexual harassment Pornography Prostitution Combating "objectification" and "commodification" Pornography Protitution Sexual harassment Acquiring sexual "agency" Birth control Abortion

10.3.3. Third-Wave Feminism Promoting greater inclusiveness race, class, sexual orientation, gender identity Taking account of context