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1. Cosmopolitanism

1.1. Kwame Anthony Appiah, "Education for Global Citizenship"

2. Human Nature

2.1. Mencius, Mencius Book 2 and 6

2.2. Xunzi, "Man's Nature is Evil"

2.3. Plato, The Republic

3. Foundations of Moral Reasoning: Passions, Empathy, Reason

3.1. David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature

3.2. Adam Smith The Theory of Moral Sentiments

3.3. Fung Yu-Lan, A New Treatise on Human Nature

4. Moral Rationalism

4.1. Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

4.2. Jeremy Bentham, Principles of Morals and Legislation

5. Moral Relativism and Moral Realism

5.1. James Rachels, "The Challenge of Cultural Relativism"

5.2. Jonathan Haidt and Craig Joseph, "Intuitive Ethics: How Innately Prepared Intuitions Generate Culturally Variable Virtues"

5.3. Steven Pinker, "Taming the Devil Within Us"

6. Individual and Group Identity

6.1. Emile Durkheim, "The Dualism of Human Nature"

6.1.1. Dualism, Antinomy

6.1.1.1. Body and Soul

6.1.1.2. Sensation and Thought

6.1.1.3. Self-Interest and Disinterest

6.1.1.4. Sensation and Concept

6.1.1.5. Subjective and Collective

6.1.1.6. Personal and Impersonal

6.1.1.7. Egoism and Altruism

6.1.2. Doctrine

6.1.2.1. Empiricist Doctrine

6.1.2.1.1. It's all sensation; even altruism is self-interested effot to feel good

6.1.2.2. Idealist Doctrine

6.1.2.2.1. It's all ideas; nothing is real until we think about it

6.1.2.3. Metaphysical Doctrine

6.1.2.4. Rationalist Doctrine

6.2. Charles Taylor, "The Politics of Recognition"

6.2.1. From Honor to Dignity

6.2.1.1. Hierarchical (honor)

6.2.1.2. Egalitarian (dignity)

6.2.1.3. A politics of universal dignity

6.2.2. Moral Intuition

6.2.2.1. "We have an internal understanding of the (objectively) right way to act"

6.2.2.2. "The personal right way to act requires us to understand our internal feelings (authenticity)"

6.2.3. Authenticity

6.2.3.1. Being true to myself

6.2.3.2. Originality

6.2.3.2.1. Individual

6.2.3.2.2. Cultures

6.2.3.3. A politics of difference

6.2.4. The Tension

6.2.4.1. The politics of difference "springs from" the politics of equal dignity

6.2.4.2. But the politics of difference "diverges from" the politics of equal dignity

6.2.4.3. Respect for the potentiality of all people to act based on reason

6.2.4.4. Respect for all actually evolved cultures, even if you think they are "unreasonable"

6.2.4.5. Are there truly universal principles?

7. Patriotism

7.1. Plato, Crito

7.1.1. Not on an equal level with parents because parents provided benefits (nourishment and education)

7.1.2. Not on an equal level with government because government created the conditions under which parents provided those benefits

7.1.3. If you are free to leave but choose to stay, then you have a duty to obey

7.1.4. If you have an opportunity to present your arguments, then you have a duty to obey

7.1.5. If you choose to have a child in the city, then you must think it is "congenial enough" and you have a duty to obey

7.2. Carol Nicholson, "Why I Am Not a Patriot"

7.2.1. Patriotic Obligation vs. Emotional Patriotism

7.2.2. Richard Rorty: A "Golden Mean" of Patriotism

7.2.3. "Fixing love on an abstraction such as 'country' leads to the erroneous conclusion that one's country is better than all others, which is a recipe for intolerance, hate, and war."

7.3. Martha Nussbaum, "Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism"

7.3.1. Patriotism and Cosmopolitansim

7.3.1.1. Rabindranath Tangore, The Home and the World

7.3.1.2. Extreme Bande Mataram ("Hail Motherland")

7.3.1.3. To worship one's own country as a god is to bring a curse upon it

7.3.2. Cosmopolitan Education

7.3.2.1. We lean more about ourselves

7.3.2.2. It becomes easier to solve problems cooperatively

7.3.2.3. We recognize moral obligations to others

7.3.2.4. We think in more principled ways (truly equal respect)

7.3.3. The Patriotic Challenge

7.3.3.1. Patriotism 1

7.3.3.1.1. Love, Non-relative, Pride, Mutual Recognition

7.3.3.2. Patriotism 2

7.3.3.2.1. Worship, Relative, Superiority, Disrespect

8. National Culture

8.1. Fareed Zakaria, "Culture is Destiny: An Interview with Lee Kuan Yew"

8.1.1. Lee's View of America

8.1.1.1. Free and open relations across groups

8.1.1.2. Open spirit of argument

8.1.1.3. Idealistic, generous to defeated enemies

8.1.1.4. High emphasis on government accountability

8.1.1.5. Optimism, with history of consistent growth in orderly government

8.1.1.6. Guns/drugs/violent crime/ vagrancy/poor behavior in public

8.1.1.7. Extreme emphasis on individual rights

8.1.1.8. Erosion of moral underpinnings

8.1.1.9. Diminution of personal responsibility

8.1.1.10. Disorder

8.1.1.11. Guns/drugs/violent crime/ vagrancy/poor behavior in public

8.1.2. Lee's View of East Asia

8.1.2.1. Individual always seen in context of family

8.1.2.2. Xiushen qijia Zhiguo Pintianxia

8.1.2.3. History of government turbulence, with dynasties that rise and fall

8.1.2.4. Thrift and hard work

8.1.2.5. Deferral of present enjoyment for future gain

8.1.2.6. Filial piety and loyalty

8.1.2.7. Respect for scholarship and learning

8.1.3. Domains of Possible Difference

8.1.3.1. Role of the Family

8.1.3.1.1. Developing Values

8.1.3.1.2. Providing Material Benefits

8.1.3.2. Role of the Government

8.1.3.2.1. Maintaining Public Order

8.1.3.2.2. Providing Material Benefits

8.1.3.3. The Moral Balance Between Freedom and Responsibility

8.1.4. The Government We Seek

8.1.4.1. Meet our needs

8.1.4.2. Is not oppressive

8.1.4.3. Maximizes our opportunities

8.1.4.4. Does not try to provide what the family best provides

8.1.4.5. A Well ordered society so that everybody can have maximum enjoyment of his freedoms

8.1.5. Multiculturalism

8.1.5.1. Make haste slowly

8.1.5.2. Integration, not assimilation

8.1.5.3. A middle path between uniformity and freedom to be different

8.1.5.4. Permit distinctive student dress, but not distinctive government official dress

8.2. Kim Dae Jung, "Is Culture Destiny? The Myth of Asia's Anti-Democratic Values"

8.2.1. Democracy Fits Well in Asia

8.2.1.1. Mengzi advocated democratic accountabliliy

8.2.1.2. Will of the people

8.2.1.3. Confucianism, Buddhism, Tonghak

8.2.1.4. Rule of law

8.2.1.5. Meritocratic examinations

8.2.1.6. Equal opportunity and social mobility

8.2.1.7. Freedom of speech

8.2.1.8. Rapid democratization since 1974

8.2.2. A Democratic Future

8.2.2.1. Global democracy

8.2.2.2. Greater voice in policies will make them more effective

8.2.2.3. Xiushen qijia Zhiguo Pintianxia

8.2.2.4. A government should guarantee the right of personal development

9. Gender Identity

9.1. Sherry B. Ortner, "Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?"

9.1.1. Structuralism

9.1.1.1. People perceive the world through contrasts and "binary oppositions" (hot vs. cold, male vs. female, author vs. reader)

9.1.1.2. The binary opposition is often a hierarchy, with a dominant element and a subordinate element

9.1.1.3. All cultures develop ways to manage and reconcile these oppositions

9.1.1.4. Universal, deep structures shape how cultures manage binary oppositions, although they will do so differently

9.1.1.5. One reason why different cultures may take different approaches is that each culture has its own structure of linguistic "signs": relationships between sets of sounds("signifiers") and consepts ("signified")

9.1.1.6. Deconstruction of "binary oppositions" to show interdependence and continuity

9.1.1.7. Emphasis on history and context rather than universal structures

9.1.2. Women's inferiority

9.1.2.1. Women universally treated as "closer to nature" than men

9.1.2.1.1. "Culture": products of human consciousness (systems of thought and technology) through which humans attempt to control nature

9.1.2.1.2. Woman identified with something that all cultures devalue:"nature" inferior to "culture"

9.1.2.2. What universal structure explains this?

9.1.2.2.1. Biological difference

9.1.2.2.2. Culturally-created social roles difference

9.1.2.2.3. Culturally-created gendered personality difference

9.1.2.2.4. Culturally-created subordination

9.2. Elinor Burkett, "What Makes a Woman?"

9.2.1. Caitlyn Jenner's account of her gender identity

9.2.1.1. "female brain"

9.2.1.2. physical self-presentation

9.2.2. Burkett: Trans women's "female identities" are not my female identity; many women share experience that are not shared by trans women

10. Gender and Multiculturalism

10.1. Susan Moller Okin, "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?"

10.1.1. Favors liberal societies focused on the individual

10.1.1.1. legal/public sphere

10.1.1.2. Private sphere

10.1.2. More patriarchal Cultures

10.1.2.1. Child marriage, forced marriage, polygame

10.1.2.2. Restricted divorce

10.1.2.3. Clitoridectomy

10.1.3. Less Patriarchal Cultures

10.1.3.1. Push women towards prescribe roles

10.2. Usha Menon, "Does Feminism Have Universal Relevance? The Challenges Posed by Oriya Hindu Family Practices"

10.2.1. Oriya Hindu

10.2.1.1. Exercise power within families

10.2.1.2. Do not feel exploited

10.2.1.3. Value lack of geographic mobility

10.2.1.4. Powerful female symbols (goddess Devi)

10.3. Feminism

10.3.1. FIrst-Wave Feminism

10.3.1.1. Securing fundamental legal and political rights

10.3.1.1.1. rights to vote

10.3.1.1.2. Eliminating "Coverture"

10.3.2. Second-Wave Feminism

10.3.2.1. Pursuing social and cultural equality

10.3.2.1.1. Ending workplace discrimination

10.3.2.1.2. Equalizing roles within the family

10.3.2.2. Challenging the "public"/"private" distinction

10.3.2.2.1. The personal is political

10.3.2.3. Advocating legal change

10.3.2.3.1. Sexual harassment

10.3.2.3.2. Pornography

10.3.2.3.3. Prostitution

10.3.2.4. Combating "objectification" and "commodification"

10.3.2.4.1. Pornography

10.3.2.4.2. Protitution

10.3.2.4.3. Sexual harassment

10.3.2.5. Acquiring sexual "agency"

10.3.2.5.1. Birth control

10.3.2.5.2. Abortion

10.3.3. Third-Wave Feminism

10.3.3.1. Promoting greater inclusiveness

10.3.3.1.1. race, class, sexual orientation, gender identity

10.3.3.2. Taking account of context