Respiration

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Respiration by Mind Map: Respiration

1. The main source of energy in a cell is Glucose

2. The structure which Muscle and Sperm cells have a lot of is MIitochondria

3. Aerobic Respiration

3.1. 38 ATP are produced (for one glucose molecule)

3.2. Starts: Cytoplasm Completed: Mitochonria

3.3. Equation: Glucose + Oxygen -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water +Energy

3.4. First Stage: Glycolosis

3.4.1. Occurs in Cytoplasm & No oxygen is needed

3.4.2. 2 ATP produced

3.4.3. Doesn't require oxygen

3.5. Second Stage: Breakdown of Pyruvate

3.5.1. Occurs in Mitochondria & Oxygen is needed

3.5.2. 36 ATP produced

3.5.3. Requires oxygen

3.6. Process is REVERSIBLE

4. Anaerobic Respiration/Fermentation

4.1. 2 ATP produced (from Glycolosis)

4.2. Occurs in Cytoplasm

4.3. Doesn't require oxygen

4.4. Animals

4.4.1. Equation in Animals: Glucose -----> Lactic Acid

4.4.2. Process is REVERSIBILE

4.4.3. When you stop working anaerobically the lactic acid has to be converted back to pyruvate

4.4.3.1. Recovery period = time taken for lactic acid to be converted back to pyruvate

4.4.3.2. Oxygen debt = volume of oxygen needed to convert lactic acid back to pyruvate

4.5. Plants and Fungi

4.5.1. Called the Fermentation Pathway in plants and fungi

4.5.2. Equation in Plants and Fungi: Glucose -----> Ethanol +Carbon Dioxide

4.5.3. Process is IRREVERSIBLE

5. Fermentation

5.1. Fermentation is the Anaerobic process which is used to make useful products e.g bread, beer, wine / The Anaerobic process that involves the chemical breakdown of a substance by microbes is called Fermentation

5.2. Fermentation and Baking Industries

5.2.1. Bread

5.2.1.1. The microbe used is Yeast

5.2.1.2. Fermentation Equation: Glucose --yeast--> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide

5.2.1.3. Carbon dioxide gets trapped in the dough fibres and they expand which causes the dough to rise

5.2.1.4. The ethanol produced evaporates in the oven during the baking process

5.3. Fermentation and Dairy Industries

5.3.1. Yoghurt

5.3.1.1. The microbe used is Bacteria

5.3.1.2. Fermentation Equation: Lactose Sugar --bacteria--> Lactic Acid

5.3.1.3. During the process the pH of the milk Drops/Lowers

5.3.2. Cheese

5.3.2.1. The microbe used is Bacteria

5.3.2.2. The enzyme used is Rennet

5.3.2.2.1. Rennet clots the proteins in the milk to make the curds, solid, and the whey, the liquid (only the curds are used, the whey is not)

5.4. Fermentation and Brewing Industries

5.4.1. Beer

5.4.1.1. The microbe used is Yeast

5.4.1.2. Fermentation Equation: Glucose --yeast--> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide

5.4.1.3. The large tanks used to make beer are called Fermentors

5.4.1.3.1. The computers and these tanks control the temperature and pH to provide the optimum conditions for the yeast

6. ATP

6.1. When glucose is broken down the energy is stored in ATP

6.2. ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate

6.3. Produced through respiration of glucose

6.4. Stores chemical energy

6.5. Formed from ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) + Pi (Inorganic Phosphate)

6.5.1. ADP + Pi -----> ADP

6.6. The chemical energy stored by ATP is released when ATP breaks down into ADP + Pi

6.7. The released ATP can be used for cellular activities such as muscle contraction, cell division, protein synthesis and transmission on nerve impulses

6.8. Can be regenerated during respiration