Student Assessments

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Student Assessments by Mind Map: Student Assessments

1. Diagnostic Assessments

1.1. Definition: the gathering of and careful evaluation of detailed data targeting students' knowledge and skill in a particular area.

1.2. Purpose: to enable teachers to plan specific and appropriate lessons for students and to scaffold learning to meet their learning needs.

1.2.1. Tools for Learning - determine the areas where teachers need to target in order to move students to a deeper understanding and a greater level of achievement

1.3. Advantages

1.3.1. Can determine grade level strengths and weaknesses

1.3.2. Can target weaknesses in order for learning to center on these areas

1.3.3. Can be administered and scores can be received in-school; assessments don't have to be sent away for evaluation

1.4. Disadvantages

1.4.1. Tied to a specific curriculum

1.4.2. Tied to course goals

1.4.3. Must follow a formal protocol

1.5. Examples

1.5.1. Standardized Reading Instrument (SRI) I-Ready (Math) Teacher-Created Diagnostics

1.6. Source: Understanding Testing and Tests. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2016, from

2. Formative Assessments

2.1. Definition: methods that teachers use to conduct in-process of students comprehension, learning needs and academic progress during a lesson, unit or course.

2.2. Purpose: to collect detailed information that can be used to improve instruction and student learning while it is occurring.

2.2.1. For Learning - Formative assessments assist teachers and students during the learning process; they are designed to guide or to improve learning at a particular stage in the process.

2.3. Advantages

2.3.1. Part of the learning process

2.3.2. Promotes metacognitive and self assessment during the process

2.3.3. Teacher can provide immediate feedback

2.3.4. Promotes student reflection

2.3.5. Allows teachers to make timely adjustments to learning

2.4. Disadvantages

2.4.1. Some critics feel that teachers don't use formative assessments correctly in the classroom.

2.4.2. There is a debate over whether or not formative assessments should be graded.

2.4.3. Takes time

2.4.4. Requires a lot of teacher involvement

2.5. Examples

2.5.1. Student journals

2.5.2. Student-Teacher Conferences

2.5.3. Student self-assessments

2.5.4. Graphic Organizers to assist students in the process

2.6. Source: Martin, R. (2013, November 20). Assessment for Learning: 1. Deciding where learners are in their learning. Retrieved January 2, 2016, from

3. Summative Assessments

3.1. Definition: assessments used to evaluate student learning and skill acquisition at the conclusion of a defined instructional period.

3.2. Purpose: to evaluate student learning by looking at it against a standard or benchmark.

3.2.1. These are of learning assessments: Summative Assessments are able to determine what a student has learned after the instruction period has ended.

3.3. Advantages

3.3.1. Determines what students learned and retained

3.3.2. Teachers can evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching

3.3.3. Can assist in the placement of students (e.g., advanced, intermediate, emerging) after a learning cycle has ended.

3.4. Disadvantages

3.4.1. Aren't created to identify or scaffold students in instruction prior to learning issues becoming critical

3.4.2. Can cause students and teachers anxiety

3.4.3. Can influence teachers to teach to the test

3.4.4. In terms of standardized testing, they may contain biases.

3.4.5. May be used to determine if students graduate or not (e.g,, SOLs in Virginia

3.5. Examples

3.5.1. Final Projects

3.5.2. Unit/Cycle Tests

3.5.3. Standardized Tests

3.6. Source: (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2016, from

4. Performance-Based Assessments

4.1. Definition: a way in which students demonstrate knowledge, skills and material they have learned in real-world contexts.

4.2. Purpose: to demonstrate the application of knowledge, skills and habits in meaningful and engaging ways for students.

4.2.1. This can be both a for learning and of learning assessment. Students can be coached and mentored during the process; since this type of learning has many stages, students can build upon their learning during the process. As a tool of learning, students demonstrate what they learned through the process itself.

4.3. Advantages

4.3.1. Active Learning

4.3.2. Meaningful work

4.3.3. Development of interpersonal and group communication skills

4.3.4. Development of organizational and time management skills

4.3.5. Development of strategic thinking

4.3.6. May be built into the curriculum

4.4. Disadvantages

4.4.1. Teachers spend greater time for planning

4.4.2. Time consuming for students in processing and task completion

4.4.3. Little research on the effectiveness of PBAs in high stakes testing environments

4.5. Examples: Project Based Learning Projects

4.5.1. Students created a documentary on human trafficking in order to raise awareness in their community.

4.6. Source: Performance Assessment. (1993, September 1). Retrieved January 2, 2016, from

5. High Stakes Assessments

5.1. Definition: any test used to make important policy decisions about students, educators, schools, districts and states

5.2. Purpose: accountability - an attempt by the federal, state or local government agencies and school administrations to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and taught by effective teachers.

5.2.1. Tools of learning: Principals and teachers are required through the scores of students to demonstrate both quantitatively and qualitatively the effectiveness of instruction.

5.3. Advantages

5.3.1. Hold teachers accountable

5.3.2. Can motivate students to work harder and more seriously

5.3.3. High expectations to close achievement gaps

5.3.4. Numeric scores used to make policy changes

5.4. Disadvantages

5.4.1. Teaching to the test

5.4.2. Reduced instruction area in subjects that aren't tested

5.4.3. Increased cheating

5.4.4. Biased

5.4.5. Increased failure

5.4.6. Doesn't measure intelligences other than math and language modalities

5.5. Examples: PARCC

5.6. Source: High-Stakes Test Definition. (2014, August 18). Retrieved January 2, 2016, from

6. Portfolios

6.1. Definition: a systematic collection of student work and related material that depicts a student's activities, accomplishments and achievements in one or more subjects.

6.2. Purpose: to help students compile work that illustrates their talents and to tell narratives of their achievements.

6.2.1. Tools of learning: Portfolios show the completed work -- the results of their efforts. This is meaningful work of students' accomplishments for which a student has reached proficiency or mastery.

6.3. Advantages

6.3.1. Promotes self-reflection, evaluation and critical thinking

6.3.2. Measures performance based on students' work

6.3.3. Enables both teachers and students to share the responsibility of learning goals and evaluating student progress in meeting those goals.

6.4. Disadvantages

6.4.1. Time consuming

6.4.2. Physically cumbersome

6.4.3. Systematic

6.5. Examples

6.5.1. Product Portfolios: mastery of subject matter or learning tasks

6.6. Source: Venezuela, J. (2002, July 30). Defining Portfolio Assessment. Retrieved January 2, 2016, from

7. Authentic Assessments

7.1. Definition: a strategy that asks students to demonstrate skills and concepts they have learned.

7.2. Purpose: to evaluate students' abilities in real-world contexts -- tasks and projects. Focuses on analytical skills, integration, creative collaboration, written and oral communication and values the learning process

7.2.1. Both for learning and of learning: Students can utilize the lessons of authentic assessments to enable them to move to the next stage of the process or to assist them in future projects. Of learning assessments - students demonstrate what they have learned during the process.

7.3. Advantages

7.3.1. Analysis and integration of knowledge

7.3.2. Creative

7.3.3. Collaborative

7.3.4. Real-world contexts

7.4. Disadvantages

7.4.1. Time consuming to create and monitor

7.4.2. Difficulty to implement with mandatory standards

7.4.3. Difficult to evaluate in light of letter grades

7.5. Examples

7.5.1. Oral interviews/histories

7.5.2. Experiments

7.5.3. Creating travel brochures

7.6. Source: Authentic Assessment Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2016, from

8. Self-Assessments

8.1. Definition: assessments which enable students to think about their own learning strategies and process

8.2. Purpose: to encourage students to become independent thinkers and to increase their motivation

8.2.1. Both for and of learning: Students engage in metacognitive processes during their learning cycle and evaluate the knowledge and skills they have acquired at the end of the learning cycle.

8.3. Advantages

8.3.1. Students are responsible for their own learning and relfection

8.3.2. Development of judgment skills

8.3.3. Students think about their thinking

8.4. Disadvantages

8.4.1. Students may rush through the process

8.4.2. Students may think they are strong in an area where they aren't.

8.4.3. Students may not be totally honest in their own evaluation.

8.5. Examples

8.5.1. End of cycle/unit self-assessments

8.5.2. Writing self-assessments (process)

8.6. Source: . (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2016, from

9. Peer Assessments

9.1. Definition: students take responsibility to assess the work of their peers against a set of criteria

9.2. Purpose: increase reflection, responsibility and depth of understanding of content skills

9.2.1. Both tool of for and of learning: Students are learning to evaluate and to judge a body of their peers' work during the process which aids them in critical thinking that may be utilized and applied in other learning areas. As a tool of learning, students learn to use their thinking skills through a process which "culminates" in their being able to determine where a peer is in his or learning and to provide feedback.

9.3. Advantages

9.3.1. Development of judgment skills

9.3.2. Students take ownership of the learning process.

9.3.3. Relevant and meaningful feedback comes from peers

9.4. Disadvantages

9.4.1. Students may hold back in their honesty about a peer's work.

9.4.2. Students may take it easy on friends

9.4.3. May not be helpful if students are not taught how to examine work critically.

9.4.4. Time consuming to teach and to define what is good work

9.5. Examples

9.5.1. Writers' Workshop Peer Review

9.5.2. Peer evaluation of class projects

9.6. Source:

9.6.1. Source: . (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2016, from