My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. Developed by: William Graham Sumner

1.1.2. Charles Darwin

1.1.3. Social Evolution Strongest survive

1.1.4. Progress is dependent on initiative and drive.

1.1.5. Free market Most productive economic system Most respectful of human needs Competition and freedom

1.1.6. Adam Smith

1.1.7. Milton Friedman

1.1.8. Rational actors who make decisions on a cost-benefit scale.

1.1.9. Primary emphasis on the individual

1.1.10. Ronald Reagan Supporter of free market

1.2. Liberal

1.2.1. John Dewey

1.2.2. Politically dominant Franklin D. Roosevelt New Deal Era

1.2.3. Free Market (accepts) Prone to abuses

1.2.4. John Maynard Keyes Believes free market prone to recession

1.2.5. Government involvement is necessary

1.2.6. Balance of economic productivity of capitalism

1.2.7. Fair treatment to all citizens

1.2.8. Equality of opportunity

1.2.9. Minimize differences in life chances and outcomes Rich to poor

1.2.10. Government must intercede on behalf of those in need (sometimes)

1.3. Radical

1.3.1. Does NOT believe in free market capitol

1.3.2. Democratic socialism

1.3.3. Karl Marx

1.3.4. Between the accumulation laws of capitalism and social welfare of public

1.3.5. Democratic political system

1.3.6. Retains political freedoms

1.3.7. Capitalist system U.S. social problems

1.3.8. Support change Politically Theoretically

1.3.9. Negative about U.S. society

1.3.10. Favor movement toward democratic socialism

1.4. Neo-liberal

1.4.1. Failure of public schools Teacher unions Teacher tenure Seniority Teacher layoffs Seniority Absence of student, teacher, and school accountability

1.4.2. Improve urban schools

1.4.3. Public Schools have reproduced inequalities through failing schools for students

1.4.4. Official federal, state, and local policy

1.4.5. President Bush's No Child Left Behind

1.4.6. Arne Duncan's signature program, Race to the Top

1.4.7. Valued Added Models

1.4.8. Austerity

1.4.9. Market Model

1.4.10. Individualism

1.4.11. State intervention

1.4.12. Economic prosperity

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Inception

2.1.1. School assumed roles that were once the families, churches, and communities.

2.2. School is a focal point for larger issues in society.

2.3. Bernard Bailyn (1960)

2.3.1. use of school = failure of institutions to provide tools needed by emerging society. family, church, community

2.4. Reform movement

2.4.1. Education for women Jacques Rousseau Troy Female Seminary Emma Hart Willard Catharine Esther Beecher Mary Lyon Mount Holyoke Seminary Oberlin Collegiate Institue in Ohio

2.4.2. Education for African Americans Oberlin Collegiate Institue in Ohio Benjamin Roberts Legal suit (1846) Fourteenth Amendment

2.5. Historical Interpretation

2.5.1. Democratic-liberals History of U.S. education involves progressive evolution of a school system committed to equality of opportunity for everyone. Each period of educational expansion involved attempts to expand educational opportunities and reject conservative view of schools. Ellwood Cubberly Merle Curti Believe the U.S. educational system must move closer to equity and excellence.

2.5.2. Lawrence A. Cremin Progressive Era Evolution of U.S. education in terms of two processes More students from diverse backgrounds, the more diverse the education Sees equity and excellence as necessary compromises

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Schools Shape children worldly perspectives Values Beliefs Norms Ex. Pledge Allegiance to the Flag Citizenship Patriotism Equal educational opportunity

3.1.2. Socialization (Society) Held together by shared values (some agree) Interdependence of the social system

3.1.3. Emile Durkheim Virtually invented the sociology of education Moral Education The Evolution of Educational Thought Education and Sociology

3.1.4. Karl Marx

3.2. Three Effects of Schooling on Students

3.2.1. 1. Stereotypes (Shapes children's consciousness) Extracurricular activities by gender

3.2.2. 2. Determining who will get ahead in life and who will not. School acts as important sorters and selectors of students Tracking

3.2.3. 3. Social and economic mobility

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. District 9

4.1.1. State Senators Clay Scofield

4.1.2. House of Representatives Ed Henry

4.1.3. State Superintendent Thomas Bice

4.1.4. Representative on State School Board Ann Starks

4.1.5. Local Superintendent Brett Stanton

4.1.6. Local School Board Cynthia McCarty

4.2. Comparison

4.2.1. Italy Weeks: Monday thru Saturday Off one day: Sunday School starts at 8 a.m. and ends around 1 or 2 p.m. or sometimes 4 or 5 p.m. a couple of days a week. No sports in school at all High school lasts 5 years You stay in the same class all 5 years Exams are composed of long speeches, extended responses, and oral essays They have to buy your own books

4.2.2. United States of America Weeks: Monday thru Friday Off two days: Saturday and Sunday Basketball, football, baseball, cross-country, etc Starts at 7:30 a.m. and ends at 3 p.m. High school lasts 4 years Multiple choice exams Books are provided

4.3. Governance

4.3.1. Powers retained by each individual state

4.4. Size and Degree of Centralization

4.4.1. More then 55 million children enrolled in Kindergarten through the 12th grade Costs over 650 billion dollars annually

4.5. Private Schools

4.5.1. Elementary and Secondary schools 28,220 5.5 million students

4.5.2. Constitute 25 percent of all schools

4.5.3. Educate 10 percent of student population

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Curriculum Theories

5.1.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum Believes different groups of students, with different sets of needs and aspirations, should receive different types of schooling.

5.1.2. Developmentalist Curriculum Related to the needs and wants of the students rather than the needs of society.

5.1.3. Social Meliorist Curriculum Believed that school curriculum should teach students to think and help solve societal problems, if not to change the society itself.

5.2. Achievement Gap

5.2.1. Social Class

5.2.2. Race

5.2.3. Ethnicity

5.2.4. Gender

5.3. Urban Education

5.3.1. Poor

5.3.2. Populated by Minorities

5.4. Foundations Perspective

5.4.1. Educational Organizaion

5.4.2. Educational Processes

5.4.3. Educational Theory

5.4.4. Educational Practices

5.5. Foundations of Education

5.6. Dialectic Method

5.7. Critical Literacy

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Educational Achievement and Attainment

6.1.1. African American 84% graduated high school 52.4 % received a bachelors degree

6.1.2. Hispanic-American 62.7% graduated high school 13.9% received a bachelors degree

6.1.3. Women 87.6% graduated high school 29.8% received a bachelors degree

6.1.4. Special Needs Individuals

6.2. The Coleman Study

6.2.1. High School Achievement: Public, Catholic, and Private Schools Compared. James Coleman Noticed in all subjects, private school students scored higher than public school students. Thomas Hoffer Sally Kilgore Private schools focus more on academic achievement and thus are more effective schools.

6.2.2. Responses Round 1 Where a child goes to school has little to no effect on their cognitive growth

6.2.3. Responses Round 2 Private Schools seem to "do it better"

6.2.4. Responses Round 3 A persons race and background determines what school they attend, but the race and background of a school has a greater effect on student achievement

6.3. School Segregation

6.4. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievment

6.4.1. College graduates are more likely to earn higher than high school graduates.

6.5. Education and Inequality

6.5.1. Mobility Education provides economic and social mobility

6.5.2. Reproduction

6.5.3. Education Life chances Class structure

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Sociological Explanations of Unequal Achievement

7.1.1. Functionalists Believe school's role is to provide a fair selection process for sorting out the best and brightest students, regardless of family history. Expect the schooling process to produce unequal results, however, results should be based on individual differences between students Believe unequal educational outcomes stem from unequal educational opportunities

7.1.2. Conflict Theorists Believe the role of schooling is to reproduce, rather than eliminate, inequality. Do not believe that equality of opportunity is a sufficient goal

7.2. School-centered Explanations of Unequal Achievement

7.2.1. School Financing Jonathan Kozol Compared public schools in affluent suburbia with public schools in poor inner cities. Public Schools Financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. Serrano v. Priest California Supreme Court ruled the system of unequal school financing between wealthy and poor districts unconstitutional.

7.3. Student-centered Explanation

7.3.1. The Coleman Report Argued that school differences were not the most significant explanatory variable for the lower educational achievement of working-class and nonwhite students. Differences among groups had the strongest impact

7.3.2. Far more significant differences in academic performance among students in same schools than among students in different schools

7.3.3. Genetic Differences

8. Educational Reform

8.1. Types of School-Based Reform

8.1.1. School-Based School Choice Charter Schools Tuition Vouchers

8.1.2. School-Business Partnerships Businesses "adopt" a school

8.1.3. Privatization Distinction between public and private schools are blurred

8.1.4. School-To-Work Programs School- Business partnerships became incorporated into school-to-work programs

8.1.5. Teacher Education The debate 1. Perceived lack of intellectual demands in teacher education programs 2. The need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates 3. The necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs Commission recommended 1. Get serious about standards 2. Reinvent teacher professional development 3. Fix teacher recruitment and put qualified teachers in every classroom 4. Encourage and reward teacher knowledge and skill 5. Create schools that are organized for success.

8.1.6. Teacher Quality

8.2. societal, economic, community, or political reform

8.2.1. State intervention and Mayoral Control in local school districts

9. Philosophy of Education

9.1. Generic Notions

9.1.1. Plato Engage in dialogue Question the individual's point of view Dialectic Ideas matter above all Education important for moving individuals toward good State should encourage gifted students to study the abstract more, instead of the concrete. Students who focus more on concrete Students who focus on more abstract

9.2. Key Researchers

9.2.1. Plato

9.2.2. Aristotle

9.2.3. John Dewey

9.3. Goal of Education

9.3.1. Plato Study ideas to understand ideas Real world is "shadowy and deceptive"

9.3.2. Aristotle Study the world of matter to understand ideas Real world is starting point to understanding philosophical concerns

9.3.3. Contemporary Realists Help individuals understand and apply principles of science to help solve the problems haunting the modern world

9.3.4. John Dewey Social order Ideas not separate from social conditions Dialectic of Freedom Integrate children into a democratic society Primary goal: Growth

9.4. Role of Teacher

9.4.1. Progressive setting Teacher is facilitator not authoritarian Encourages Offers suggestions Questions Helps plan Implements courses of study Writes curriculum

9.5. Method of Instruction

9.5.1. Dewey Children learn individually and in groups Children should start by asking questions about what they want to know Problem solving method (Inquiry) Books written by teachers and students are used Field trips and projects Used loose tables and chairs to allow for grouping. Children could: Converse quietly Stand and stretch if needed Pursue independent study or group work.

9.6. Curriculum

9.6.1. Personal interaction Art Drama Literature

9.6.2. Literature Evokes responses in children

9.6.3. Existentialists and Phenomenologists Expose students at early ages to problems and horrors as well as accomplishments capable of being produced by human kind